http://www.iedm.org/rss en Nos producteurs de sirop toujours pris en otage http://www.iedm.org/node/64084 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Le march&eacute; des produits de l&rsquo;&eacute;rable au Qu&eacute;bec.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/64084" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Fri, 23 Sep 2016 20:50:57 +0000 iedm 64084 at http://www.iedm.org Nos producteurs de sirop toujours pris en otage http://www.iedm.org/64083-nos-producteurs-de-sirop-toujours-pris-en-otage <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>The market for maple products in Quebec.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/64083-nos-producteurs-de-sirop-toujours-pris-en-otage" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Fri, 23 Sep 2016 20:43:31 +0000 iedm 64083 at http://www.iedm.org L'innovation technologique ne devrait pas être aussi perturbatrice! http://www.iedm.org/node/64090 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/jasmin-guenette, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Le conflit qui oppose l&#39;industrie du taxi &agrave; Uber.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/64090" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Fri, 23 Sep 2016 19:15:30 +0000 iedm 64090 at http://www.iedm.org L'innovation technologique ne devrait pas être aussi perturbatrice! http://www.iedm.org/64089-l-innovation-technologique-ne-devrait-pas-etre-aussi-perturbatrice <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/jasmin-guenette, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>The conflict between the taxi industry and Uber.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/64089-l-innovation-technologique-ne-devrait-pas-etre-aussi-perturbatrice" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Fri, 23 Sep 2016 19:15:30 +0000 iedm 64089 at http://www.iedm.org Accès aux médicaments: les Nations unies empruntent un dangereux raccourci http://www.iedm.org/node/64080 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/mathieu-bedard, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>L&#39;acc&egrave;s des pays pauvres aux m&eacute;dicaments.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/64080" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Fri, 23 Sep 2016 02:19:19 +0000 iedm 64080 at http://www.iedm.org Accès aux médicaments: les Nations unies empruntent un dangereux raccourci http://www.iedm.org/64079-acces-aux-medicaments-les-nations-unies-empruntent-un-dangereux-raccourci <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/mathieu-bedard, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Poor countries&#39; access to medicines.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/64079-acces-aux-medicaments-les-nations-unies-empruntent-un-dangereux-raccourci" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Fri, 23 Sep 2016 02:18:19 +0000 iedm 64079 at http://www.iedm.org Paix, amour et (libre) échangisme http://www.iedm.org/node/64076 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/youri-chassin, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>La Journ&eacute;e internationale de la paix.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/64076" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Thu, 22 Sep 2016 18:44:03 +0000 iedm 64076 at http://www.iedm.org Paix, amour et (libre) échangisme http://www.iedm.org/64075-paix-amour-et-libre-echangisme <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/youri-chassin, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>The International Day of Peace.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/64075-paix-amour-et-libre-echangisme" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Thu, 22 Sep 2016 18:42:45 +0000 iedm 64075 at http://www.iedm.org Tasse-toi mononcle ! http://www.iedm.org/node/64056 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>La Ville de Montr&eacute;al et l&#39;industrie de l&#39;autopartage.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/64056" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Tue, 20 Sep 2016 19:27:14 +0000 iedm 64056 at http://www.iedm.org Tasse-toi mononcle ! http://www.iedm.org/64055-tasse-toi-mononcle <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>The City of Montreal and the carsharing industry.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/64055-tasse-toi-mononcle" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Tue, 20 Sep 2016 19:25:41 +0000 iedm 64055 at http://www.iedm.org Bois d'œuvre : une crise qui coûte cher http://www.iedm.org/node/64039 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Le Soleil (Québec), p. 23 </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Les co&ucirc;ts largement r&eacute;pandus et les b&eacute;n&eacute;fices concentr&eacute;s du protectionnisme dans le secteur du bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/64039" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Tue, 20 Sep 2016 18:57:15 +0000 iedm 64039 at http://www.iedm.org Bois d'œuvre : une crise qui coûte cher http://www.iedm.org/64038-bois-d-oeuvre-une-crise-qui-coute-cher <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Le Soleil (Québec), p. 23 </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Protectionism provides benefits for a limited group, all while harming a majority.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/64038-bois-d-oeuvre-une-crise-qui-coute-cher" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Tue, 20 Sep 2016 18:56:07 +0000 iedm 64038 at http://www.iedm.org Entente entre Québec et Uber - Habituez-vous, il y en aura d’autres http://www.iedm.org/node/64025 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> La Presse+, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Le mod&egrave;le d&rsquo;affaire des chauffeurs de taxis vs Uber.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/64025" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Tue, 20 Sep 2016 12:01:21 +0000 iedm 64025 at http://www.iedm.org Entente entre Québec et Uber - Habituez-vous, il y en aura d’autres http://www.iedm.org/64024-entente-entre-quebec-et-uber-habituez-vous-il-y-en-aura-d-autres <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> La Presse+, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>The taxi drivers&#39; business model vs Uber.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/64024-entente-entre-quebec-et-uber-habituez-vous-il-y-en-aura-d-autres" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Tue, 20 Sep 2016 12:00:13 +0000 iedm 64024 at http://www.iedm.org Le libre-échange au-delà de nos frontières... et à l'intérieur aussi! http://www.iedm.org/node/64028 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/mathieu-bedard, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Les vertus du libre-&eacute;change.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/64028" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Mon, 19 Sep 2016 23:02:00 +0000 iedm 64028 at http://www.iedm.org Le libre-échange au-delà de nos frontières... et à l'intérieur aussi! http://www.iedm.org/64027-le-libre-echange-au-dela-de-nos-frontieres-et-a-l-interieur-aussi <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/mathieu-bedard, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>The virtues of free trade.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/64027-le-libre-echange-au-dela-de-nos-frontieres-et-a-l-interieur-aussi" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Mon, 19 Sep 2016 23:01:58 +0000 iedm 64027 at http://www.iedm.org Liberté économique dans le monde : le Canada maintenant cinquième ! http://www.iedm.org/node/64019 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>La libert&eacute; &eacute;conomique au Canada.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/64019" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Mon, 19 Sep 2016 20:07:54 +0000 iedm 64019 at http://www.iedm.org Liberté économique dans le monde : le Canada maintenant cinquième ! http://www.iedm.org/64018-liberte-economique-dans-le-monde-le-canada-maintenant-cinquieme <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Economic freedom in Canada.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/64018-liberte-economique-dans-le-monde-le-canada-maintenant-cinquieme" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Mon, 19 Sep 2016 20:06:47 +0000 iedm 64018 at http://www.iedm.org Canadian wood producers face 25 per-cent tariff in border fight http://www.iedm.org/node/63810 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> The Vancouver Sun, p. A17 </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Les co&ucirc;ts largement r&eacute;pandus et les b&eacute;n&eacute;fices concentr&eacute;s du protectionnisme dans le secteur du bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/63810" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Fri, 16 Sep 2016 21:36:41 +0000 iedm 63810 at http://www.iedm.org Canadian wood producers face 25 per-cent tariff in border fight http://www.iedm.org/63809-canadian-wood-producers-face-25-per-cent-tariff-in-border-fight <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> The Vancouver Sun, p. A17 </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>The widespread costs and concentrated benefits of softwood lumber protectionism.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/63809-canadian-wood-producers-face-25-per-cent-tariff-in-border-fight" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Fri, 16 Sep 2016 21:34:22 +0000 iedm 63809 at http://www.iedm.org La crise du 2 X 4 coûte cher http://www.iedm.org/node/63790 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Le Quotidien (Chicoutimi), p. 12 </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Les co&ucirc;ts largement r&eacute;pandus et les b&eacute;n&eacute;fices concentr&eacute;s du protectionnisme dans le secteur du bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/63790" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Fri, 16 Sep 2016 13:44:12 +0000 iedm 63790 at http://www.iedm.org La crise du 2 X 4 coûte cher http://www.iedm.org/63789-la-crise-du-2x4-coute-cher <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Le Quotidien (Chicoutimi), p. 12 </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Protectionism provides benefits for a limited group, all while harming a majority.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/63789-la-crise-du-2x4-coute-cher" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Fri, 16 Sep 2016 13:41:20 +0000 iedm 63789 at http://www.iedm.org Le Point – Les coûts économiques du protectionnisme : le cas du bois d’œuvre http://www.iedm.org/node/63644 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-subtitle"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Point contrastant les coûts largement répandus et les bénéfices concentrés du protectionnisme dans le secteur du bois d’œuvre </div> </div> </div> <p>Malgr&eacute; de multiples revers juridiques devant les tribunaux de l&rsquo;OMC et de l&rsquo;AL&Eacute;NA, les producteurs de bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre r&eacute;sineux am&eacute;ricains r&eacute;clament toujours l&rsquo;imposition de limites et de tarifs sur les importations canadiennes, qui leur feraient une concurrence d&eacute;loyale en &eacute;tant subventionn&eacute;es. Si aucune entente n&rsquo;est ratifi&eacute;e avant le 12 d&rsquo;octobre 2016, les importations en provenance du Canada pourraient &ecirc;tre assujetties &agrave; des tarifs allant jusqu&rsquo;&agrave; 25 %. Le cas du bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre illustre bien comment le protectionnisme procure des avantages &agrave; un groupe restreint, tout en nuisant &agrave; une majorit&eacute;.</p> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-full"> <div class="field-label">Full Content:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><strong>Ce <em>Point </em>a &eacute;t&eacute; pr&eacute;par&eacute; par Alexandre Moreau, analyste en politiques publiques &agrave; l&rsquo;IEDM. <em>La&nbsp;Collection R&eacute;glementation de l&rsquo;IEDM vise &agrave; examiner les cons&eacute;quences souvent impr&eacute;vues pour les individus et les entreprises de divers lois et r&egrave;glements qui s&rsquo;&eacute;cartent de leurs objectifs d&eacute;clar&eacute;s.</em></strong><br /> <br /> Malgr&eacute; de multiples revers juridiques devant les tribunaux de l&rsquo;OMC et de l&rsquo;AL&Eacute;NA, les producteurs de bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre r&eacute;sineux am&eacute;ricains r&eacute;clament toujours l&rsquo;imposition de limites et de tarifs sur les importations canadiennes, qui leur feraient une concurrence d&eacute;loyale en &eacute;tant subventionn&eacute;es(1). Si aucune entente n&rsquo;est ratifi&eacute;e avant le 12 d&rsquo;octobre 2016, les importations en provenance du Canada pourraient &ecirc;tre assujetties &agrave; des tarifs allant jusqu&rsquo;&agrave; 25&nbsp;%(2). Le cas du bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre illustre bien comment le protectionnisme procure des avantages &agrave; un groupe restreint, tout en nuisant &agrave; une majorit&eacute;.<br /> <br /> <strong>Le bois canadien subventionn&eacute; ou pas?</strong><br /> <br /> L&rsquo;absence d&rsquo;un m&eacute;canisme de march&eacute; jug&eacute; appropri&eacute; permettant de d&eacute;terminer le niveau des redevances exig&eacute;es par les provinces est l&rsquo;un des principaux &eacute;l&eacute;ments du conflit sur le bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre, qui perdure depuis plus de 30 ans(3). Au Canada, la quasi-totalit&eacute; des r&eacute;coltes foresti&egrave;res est issue des for&ecirc;ts publiques, alors que 90&nbsp;% du bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre am&eacute;ricain provient des for&ecirc;ts priv&eacute;es. Un jugement en vertu de l&rsquo;AL&Eacute;NA a effectivement confirm&eacute; l&rsquo;existence d&rsquo;une subvention &agrave; l&rsquo;&eacute;gard du bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre canadien. Elle &eacute;tait cependant inf&eacute;rieure au seuil n&eacute;cessaire pour justifier des sanctions selon les lois am&eacute;ricaines(4). L&rsquo;existence d&rsquo;un dommage ou d&rsquo;une menace de dommage caus&eacute; &agrave; l&rsquo;industrie n&rsquo;a donc jamais &eacute;t&eacute; d&eacute;montr&eacute;e hors de tout doute par le gouvernement am&eacute;ricain.<br /> <br /> Compte tenu de cette situation, des n&eacute;gociations avaient men&eacute; &agrave; la ratification du dernier Accord entre les deux pays s&rsquo;&eacute;talant de 2006 &agrave; 2015, qui proposait deux options aux provinces concern&eacute;es(5). La premi&egrave;re reposait sur des tarifs &agrave; l&rsquo;exportation allant de 5 &agrave; 15&nbsp;% alors que la seconde pr&eacute;voyait des tarifs inf&eacute;rieurs, mais assortis d&rsquo;une limitation de volume. Les deux s&rsquo;enclenchaient d&egrave;s que le prix du bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre r&eacute;sineux &eacute;tait &eacute;gal ou inf&eacute;rieur &agrave; 355&nbsp;$ US pour un millier de pied-planches(6). Sur la p&eacute;riode couverte par l&rsquo;Accord, les tarifs ont &eacute;t&eacute; appliqu&eacute;s 77&nbsp;% du temps(7).<br /> <br /> Le secteur de la fabrication de produits en bois canadien est tr&egrave;s d&eacute;pendant du march&eacute; am&eacute;ricain. Les ventes manufacturi&egrave;res pour ce secteur totalisaient 26 milliards de dollars et soutenaient 91 781 emplois en 2015. Si l&rsquo;on prend le cas sp&eacute;cifique du bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre r&eacute;sineux vis&eacute; par l&rsquo;Accord canado-am&eacute;ricain, la valeur des exportations est pass&eacute;e de 7,1 milliards en 2006 &agrave; 5,6 milliards en 2015. C&rsquo;est donc 23&nbsp;% des ventes totales de ce secteur et plus de 21 400 emplois qui &eacute;taient directement li&eacute;s aux conditions du march&eacute; am&eacute;ricain et aux modalit&eacute;s de la derni&egrave;re entente sur le bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre canadien(8).<br /> <br /> <strong>Les gagnants et les perdants</strong><br /> <br /> En isolant les diff&eacute;rents facteurs qui peuvent influencer la demande pour le bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre canadien sur le march&eacute; am&eacute;ricain, il est possible d&rsquo;estimer l&rsquo;impact des tarifs impos&eacute;s par l&rsquo;Accord lorsque les prix &eacute;taient inf&eacute;rieurs au seuil d&eacute;termin&eacute;. Ces tarifs ont ainsi fait diminuer les exportations canadiennes de 7,78&nbsp;%(9), ce qui a co&ucirc;t&eacute; plus de 2 milliards de dollars au secteur forestier canadien (<a href="/files/image/figure1lepoint1516_fr.jpg" target="_blank">voir Figure 1</a>).<br /> <br /> Bien que l&rsquo;on mentionne rarement leur point de vue dans ce dossier, les consommateurs am&eacute;ricains de bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre sont aussi victimes des mesures protectionnistes mises en place par l&rsquo;Accord. En effet, le bois cibl&eacute; est principalement utilis&eacute; pour la construction r&eacute;sidentielle sur le march&eacute; am&eacute;ricain. Les consommateurs am&eacute;ricains ont donc d&ucirc; s&rsquo;approvisionner &agrave; partir d&rsquo;une source alternative et plus co&ucirc;teuse lorsque les barri&egrave;res tarifaires ont fait diminuer les importations canadiennes(10). Entre 2006 et 2015, ils ont ainsi d&ucirc; d&eacute;bourser 6,36 milliards de dollars canadiens de plus.<br /> <br /> Les producteurs am&eacute;ricains, quant &agrave; eux, encaissent d&rsquo;importants b&eacute;n&eacute;fices gr&acirc;ce aux barri&egrave;res tarifaires. La part de march&eacute; occup&eacute;e par les importations canadiennes de bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre r&eacute;sineux fluctuait aux alentours de 33&nbsp;% vers la fin des ann&eacute;es 1990, alors qu&rsquo;elle n&rsquo;&eacute;tait plus en moyenne que de 28&nbsp;% entre 2006 et 2013. En parall&egrave;le, la part occup&eacute;e par la production am&eacute;ricaine a consid&eacute;rablement augment&eacute; pour combler la quasi-totalit&eacute; de la baisse des importations canadiennes(11). Les producteurs am&eacute;ricains ont ainsi enregistr&eacute; un b&eacute;n&eacute;fice net suppl&eacute;mentaire de 4,63 milliards de dollars canadiens en raison des restrictions impos&eacute;es en vertu de l&rsquo;Accord 2006-2015.<br /> <br /> <strong>Conclusion</strong><br /> <br /> Le conflit du bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre met en lumi&egrave;re un aspect fondamental du protectionnisme : il concentre les b&eacute;n&eacute;fices au sein d&rsquo;un groupe restreint, alors que les co&ucirc;ts sont diss&eacute;min&eacute;s sur un grand nombre d&rsquo;acteurs &eacute;conomiques. Dans le dossier du bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre, les producteurs am&eacute;ricains se sont enrichis depuis le d&eacute;but du conflit, alors que les entreprises canadiennes et les consommateurs am&eacute;ricains continuent d&rsquo;en payer le prix.<br /> <br /> <strong>R&eacute;f&eacute;rences</strong><br /> <br /> 1. Troy Brynelson &laquo;&nbsp;Timber execs, Wyden call for new deal as lumber prices nosedive and industry frets&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>The News-Review</em>, 3 ao&ucirc;t 2016.<br /> 2. Christian No&euml;l, &laquo;&nbsp;Vers une 5e guerre commerciale sur le bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre?&nbsp;&raquo;, Radio-Canada, 6 juin 2016.<br /> 3. La Colombie-Britannique et le Qu&eacute;bec plus r&eacute;cemment ont instaur&eacute; des m&eacute;canismes de mise aux ench&egrave;res des bois permettant de d&eacute;terminer le niveau des redevances. BC Timber Sales, Welcome to BC Timber Sales; Bureau de mise en march&eacute; des bois, &Agrave; propos du bureau de mise en march&eacute; des bois; Peter Berg, &laquo;&nbsp;Le diff&eacute;rend Canado-Am&eacute;ricain sur le bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre&nbsp;&raquo;, Capsule d&rsquo;information pour les parlementaires, Biblioth&egrave;que du Parlement du Canada, 10 juin 2004.<br /> 4. D&eacute;cision du tribunal de l&rsquo;AL&Eacute;NA, novembre 2005. Voir U.S. Lumber Coalition, &laquo;&nbsp;U.S. - Canada Lumber Trade Dispute: A Brief History&nbsp;&raquo;, octobre 2015, p. 3.<br /> 5. Exclut les provinces de l&rsquo;Atlantique et quelques scieries. Voir l&rsquo;Annexe technique sur le site de l&rsquo;IEDM.<br /> 6. Affaires mondiales Canada, Accord sur le bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre r&eacute;sineux entre le Canada et les &Eacute;tats-Unis, 26 juillet 2013.<br /> 7. Rajan Parajuli et Daowei Zhang, &laquo;&nbsp;Welfare Impacts of the 2006 United States &ndash; Canada Softwood Lumber Agreement&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Canadian Journal of Forest Research</em>, vol.&nbsp;46, no 7, mai 2016, p. 956.<br /> 8. Il s&rsquo;agit d&rsquo;une moyenne pour la p&eacute;riode 2006-2015 qui exclut les emplois li&eacute;s &agrave; la r&eacute;colte. Voir l&rsquo;Annexe technique sur le site de l&rsquo;IEDM.<br /> 9. Rajan Parajuli et Daowei Zhang, <em>op. cit</em>., note 7, p. 952.<br /> 10. Katie Hoover et Ian F. Fergusson, <em>Softwood Lumber Imports from Canada: Current Issues</em>, Congressional Research Service, 27 ao&ucirc;t 2015, p. 4.<br /> 11. <em>Ibid</em>., p. 4 et 19. ​</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-snpicture"> <div class="field-label">SN Picture:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> /files/image/large-lepoint1516.jpg </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-sn"> <div class="field-label">SN:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Le cas du bois d’œuvre illustre bien comment le protectionnisme procure des avantages à un groupe restreint, tout en nuisant à une majorité. </div> </div> </div> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/63644" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Thu, 15 Sep 2016 09:00:00 +0000 iedm 63644 at http://www.iedm.org Viewpoint – The Economic Costs of Protectionism: The Case of Softwood Lumber http://www.iedm.org/63643-viewpoint-the-economic-costs-of-protectionism-the-case-of-softwood-lumber <div class="field field-type-text field-field-subtitle"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Viewpoint contrasting the widespread costs and concentrated benefits of softwood lumber protectionism </div> </div> </div> <p>Despite multiple legal setbacks before WTO and NAFTA tribunals, American softwood lumber producers are still calling for the imposition of limits and tariffs on Canadian imports, arguing that they represent unfair competition because they are subsidized. If no agreement is ratified before October 12, 2016, imports from Canada could be subject to tariffs of up to 25%. The case of softwood lumber is a good illustration of how protectionism provides benefits for a limited group, all while harming a majority.</p> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-full"> <div class="field-label">Full Content:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><strong>This <em>Viewpoint </em>was prepared by Alexandre Moreau, Public Policy Analyst at the MEI. <em>The MEI&rsquo;s Regulation Series seeks to examine the often unintended consequences for individuals and businesses of various laws and rules, in contrast with their stated goals.</em></strong><br /> <br /> Despite multiple legal setbacks before WTO and NAFTA tribunals, American softwood lumber producers are still calling for the imposition of limits and tariffs on Canadian imports, arguing that they represent unfair competition because they are subsidized.(1) If no agreement is ratified before October 12, 2016, imports from Canada could be subject to tariffs of up to 25%.(2) The case of softwood lumber is a good illustration of how protectionism provides benefits for a limited group, all while harming a majority.<br /> <br /> <strong>Is Canadian Lumber Subsidized?</strong><br /> <br /> The absence of a market mechanism that is deemed appropriate for determining the level of royalties charged by the provinces is one of the main elements of the softwood lumber dispute, which has lasted for over 30 years.(3) In Canada, nearly all wood is harvested from public forests, whereas 90% of American softwood lumber comes from private forests. A NAFTA ruling indeed confirmed the existence of a subsidy for Canadian softwood lumber. However, it was below the threshold required to justify sanctions according to American law.(4) The existence of harm or the threat of harm caused to the industry has therefore never been demonstrated beyond all doubt by the American government.<br /> <br /> Given this situation, negotiations had led to the ratification of the latest Agreement between the two countries, stretching from 2006 to 2015, which proposed two options to the provinces concerned.(5) The first was based on export charges going from 5% to 15%, while the second involved lower charges, but combined with a volume limit. The two kicked in whenever the price of softwood lumber was at or below US$355 per thousand board feet.(6) For the period covered by the Agreement, the tariffs were applied 77% of the time.(7)<br /> <br /> The Canadian wood product manufacturing sector is highly dependent on the American market. Manufacturing sales for this sector totalled $26 billion and supported 91,781 jobs in 2015. If we take the specific case of softwood lumber targeted by the Canada-United States Agreement, the value of exports fell from $7.1 billion in 2006 to $5.6 billion in 2015. Hence, 23% of this sector&rsquo;s total sales and over 21,400 jobs were directly connected to American market conditions and to the terms of the latest deal on Canadian softwood lumber.(8)<br /> <br /> <strong>The Winners and Losers</strong><br /> <br /> By isolating the different factors that can influence the demand for Canadian softwood lumber on the American market, it is possible to estimate the impact of the charges established in the Agreement when prices were below the defined threshold. These charges reduced Canadian exports by 7.78%,(9) which cost the Canadian forestry sector over $2 billion (<a href="/files/image/figure1lepoint1516_en.jpg" target="_blank">see Figure 1</a>).<br /> <br /> Although their point of view is rarely mentioned when discussing this issue, American softwood lumber consumers are also victims of the protectionist measures put in place by the Agreement. Indeed, the lumber targeted by it is used primarily for residential construction on the American market. American consumers therefore had to get their wood from an alternative and more expensive source when the tariff barriers led to reduced Canadian imports.(10) Hence, between 2006 and 2015, they had to spend an additional C$6.36 billion.<br /> <br /> American producers, for their part, made substantial profits thanks to the tariff barriers. Whereas the market share occupied by Canadian imports of softwood lumber fluctuated around 33% toward the end of the 1990s, it had fallen to an average of just 28% between 2006 and 2013. At the same time, the share occupied by American production increased considerably, taking up nearly all of the slack that was due to the drop in Canadian imports.(11) American producers thus registered additional net earnings of C$4.63 billion because of the restrictions imposed as a result of the 2006-2015 Agreement.<br /> <br /> <strong>Conclusion</strong><br /> <br /> The softwood lumber dispute highlights a fundamental aspect of protectionism: it concentrates benefits within a limited group, whereas costs are spread over a large number of economic actors. In the case of softwood lumber, American producers have gotten richer since the start of the dispute, whereas Canadian companies and American consumers continue to pay the price.<br /> <br /> <strong>References</strong><br /> <br /> 1. Troy Brynelson &ldquo;Timber execs, Wyden call for new deal as lumber prices nosedive and industry frets,&rdquo; <em>The News-Review</em>, August 3, 2016.<br /> 2. Christian No&euml;l, &ldquo;Vers une 5e guerre commerciale sur le bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre?&rdquo; Radio-Canada, June 6, 2016.<br /> 3. British Columbia and Quebec more recently have implemented timber auction mechanisms which allow royalty levels to be determined. BC Timber Sales, Welcome to BC Timber Sales; Bureau de mise en march&eacute; des bois, &Agrave; propos du bureau de mise en march&eacute; des bois; Peter Berg, &ldquo;The Canada-U.S. Softwood Lumber Dispute,&rdquo; Topical Information for Parliamentarians, Library of Parliament of Canada, June 10, 2004.<br /> 4. NAFTA panel decision, November 2005. See U.S. Lumber Coalition, &ldquo;U.S. - Canada Lumber Trade Dispute: A Brief History,&rdquo; October 2015, p. 3.<br /> 5. Excluding the Atlantic Provinces and a few sawmills. See the Technical Annex on the MEI&rsquo;s website.<br /> 6. Global Affairs Canada, The Canada-United States Softwood Lumber Agreement, July&nbsp;26, 2013.<br /> 7. Rajan Parajuli and Daowei Zhang, &ldquo;Welfare Impacts of the 2006 United States &ndash; Canada Softwood Lumber Agreement,&rdquo; <em>Canadian Journal of Forest Research</em>, Vol.&nbsp;46, No. 7, May 2016, p. 956.<br /> 8. This is an average for the 2006-2015 period that excludes jobs related to logging. See the Technical Annex on the MEI&rsquo;s website.<br /> 9. Rajan Parajuli and Daowei Zhang, <em>op. cit.</em>, endnote 7, p. 952.<br /> 10. Katie Hoover and Ian F. Fergusson, <em>Softwood Lumber Imports from Canada: Current Issues</em>, Congressional Research Service, August 27, 2015, p. 4.<br /> 11. <em>Ibid</em>., pp. 4 and 19.​</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-snpicture"> <div class="field-label">SN Picture:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> /files/image/large-lepoint1516.jpg </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-sn"> <div class="field-label">SN:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> The case of softwood lumber is a good illustration of how protectionism provides benefits for a limited group, all while harming a majority. </div> </div> </div> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/63643-viewpoint-the-economic-costs-of-protectionism-the-case-of-softwood-lumber" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Thu, 15 Sep 2016 09:00:00 +0000 iedm 63643 at http://www.iedm.org Conflit du bois d’œuvre : les producteurs canadiens demeurent les grands perdants http://www.iedm.org/node/63642 <p><strong>Montr&eacute;al, le 15 septembre 2016 &ndash;&nbsp;</strong>Alors que la mont&eacute;e du protectionnisme a domin&eacute; les discussions entre dirigeants mondiaux lors du dernier sommet du G20, un&nbsp;<em>Point&nbsp;</em>publi&eacute; aujourd&rsquo;hui par l&rsquo;IEDM montre notamment que les barri&egrave;res tarifaires impos&eacute;es au bois d&rsquo;&oelig;uvre canadien mettent en p&eacute;ril pr&egrave;s de 22 000 emplois au pays.</p> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-sn"> <div class="field-label">SN:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Alors que la montée du protectionnisme a dominé les discussions entre dirigeants mondiaux lors du dernier sommet du G20, un Point publié aujourd’hui par l’IEDM montre notamment que les barrières tarifaires imposées au bois d’œuvre canadien mettent en péril près de 22 000 emplois au pays. </div> </div> </div> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/63642" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Thu, 15 Sep 2016 09:00:00 +0000 iedm 63642 at http://www.iedm.org