http://www.iedm.org/rss en Seulement un tiers des Québécois sont favorables à l’instauration du marché du carbone s’il entraîne une hausse du prix de l’essence http://www.iedm.org/node/50048 <p><strong>Montr&eacute;al, le mercredi 27 ao&ucirc;t 2014 &ndash;</strong> Alors que la vente d&rsquo;essence sera soumise d&egrave;s le 1er janvier 2015 au march&eacute; du carbone form&eacute; par seulement le Qu&eacute;bec et la Californie, un sondage r&eacute;alis&eacute; par L&eacute;ger Marketing pour le compte de l&rsquo;Institut &eacute;conomique de Montr&eacute;al (IEDM) r&eacute;v&egrave;le que pr&egrave;s de la moiti&eacute; des Qu&eacute;b&eacute;cois y sont d&eacute;favorables lorsqu&rsquo;ils apprennent que cette mesure pourrait entra&icirc;ner une hausse du prix de l&rsquo;esse</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/50048" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Wed, 27 Aug 2014 09:45:16 +0000 iedm 50048 at http://www.iedm.org Only a third of Quebecers are in favour of the introduction of a carbon market if it leads to an increase in the price of gas http://www.iedm.org/node/50047 <p><strong>Montreal, August 27th, 2014 &ndash;</strong> While the sale of gasoline will as of January 1st, 2015 be subject to a carbon market formed solely by Quebec and California, a L&eacute;ger Marketing poll commissioned by the Montreal Economic Institute (MEI) shows that nearly half of Quebecers are opposed to this measure once they learn that it could lead to a 3&cent; per litre increase in the price of gas, versus 36% who are in favour of it.<br /> </p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/50047" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Wed, 27 Aug 2014 09:41:25 +0000 iedm 50047 at http://www.iedm.org BIXI et voitures électriques : Quand faut-il tirer la plogue? http://www.iedm.org/node/50052 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.blogues.journaldemontreal.com/iedm, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <p>Spending by politicians and the public choice theory.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/50052" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Tue, 26 Aug 2014 10:41:07 +0000 iedm 50052 at http://www.iedm.org BIXI et voitures électriques : Quand faut-il tirer la plogue? http://www.iedm.org/node/50051 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.blogues.journaldemontreal.com/iedm, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <p>Les d&eacute;penses des politiciens et la th&eacute;orie des choix publics.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/50051" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Tue, 26 Aug 2014 10:41:07 +0000 iedm 50051 at http://www.iedm.org Le risque de lâcher la proie pour l'ombre http://www.iedm.org/node/50016 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> La Presse, p. A15 </div> </div> </div> <p>Les d&eacute;ficits des r&eacute;gimes de retraite municipaux au Qu&eacute;bec.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/50016" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Tue, 19 Aug 2014 14:54:53 +0000 iedm 50016 at http://www.iedm.org Le risque de lâcher la proie pour l'ombre http://www.iedm.org/50015-le-risque-de-l-cher-la-proie-pour-l-ombre <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> La Presse, p. A15 </div> </div> </div> <p>The funding deficits of municipal pension plans in Quebec.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/50015-le-risque-de-l-cher-la-proie-pour-l-ombre" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Tue, 19 Aug 2014 14:51:33 +0000 iedm 50015 at http://www.iedm.org Le nouveau régime forestier inquiète http://www.iedm.org/node/50014 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Le Soleil, p. 23 </div> </div> </div> <p>L&#39;impact de l&#39;exploitation foresti&egrave;re sur l&#39;avenir de la for&ecirc;t et la survie du caribou forestier.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/50014" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Mon, 18 Aug 2014 11:38:15 +0000 iedm 50014 at http://www.iedm.org Le nouveau régime forestier inquiète http://www.iedm.org/50013-le-nouveau-regime-forestier-inquiete <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Le Soleil, p. 23 </div> </div> </div> <p>The impact of logging on the future of our forests and the survival of the woodland caribou.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/50013-le-nouveau-regime-forestier-inquiete" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Mon, 18 Aug 2014 11:36:11 +0000 iedm 50013 at http://www.iedm.org Un régime forestier inquiétant http://www.iedm.org/node/49964 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Le Quotidien, p. 12 </div> </div> </div> <p>L&#39;impact de l&#39;exploitation foresti&egrave;re sur l&#39;avenir de la for&ecirc;t et la survie du caribou forestier.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/49964" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Fri, 15 Aug 2014 10:40:21 +0000 iedm 49964 at http://www.iedm.org Un régime forestier inquiétant http://www.iedm.org/49963-un-r-gime-forestier-inqui-tant <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Le Quotidien, p. 12 </div> </div> </div> <p>The impact of logging on the future of our forests and the survival of the woodland caribou.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/49963-un-r-gime-forestier-inqui-tant" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Fri, 15 Aug 2014 10:39:10 +0000 iedm 49963 at http://www.iedm.org Le nouveau régime forestier crée de l'incertitude http://www.iedm.org/49978-le-nouveau-regime-forestier-cree-de-l-incertitude <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Le Nouvelliste, p. 13 </div> </div> </div> <p>The impact of logging on the future of our forests and the survival of the woodland caribou.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/49978-le-nouveau-regime-forestier-cree-de-l-incertitude" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Thu, 14 Aug 2014 20:45:26 +0000 iedm 49978 at http://www.iedm.org Le nouveau régime forestier crée de l'incertitude http://www.iedm.org/node/49977 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Le Nouvelliste, p. 13 </div> </div> </div> <p>L&#39;impact de l&#39;exploitation foresti&egrave;re sur l&#39;avenir de la for&ecirc;t et la survie du caribou forestier.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/49977" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Thu, 14 Aug 2014 20:43:26 +0000 iedm 49977 at http://www.iedm.org Thomas Piketty et l'illusion des inégalités http://www.iedm.org/node/49673 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.lesechos.fr/idees-debats, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <p>La compr&eacute;hension de base de l&rsquo;&eacute;conomie de Piketti.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/49673" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:15:25 +0000 iedm 49673 at http://www.iedm.org Thomas Piketty et l'illusion des inégalités http://www.iedm.org/49672-thomas-piketty-et-l-illusion-des-in-galit-s <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.lesechos.fr/idees-debats, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <p>Piketti&#39;s basic understanding of the economy.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/49672-thomas-piketty-et-l-illusion-des-in-galit-s" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:14:40 +0000 iedm 49672 at http://www.iedm.org Les faits s’accumulent en faveur des avantages du privé en santé http://www.iedm.org/49668-les-faits-s-accumulent-en-faveur-des-avantages-du-prive-en-sante <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Le Devoir, p. A07 </div> </div> </div> <p>The increased role of the private sector in the delivery of healthcare services.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/49668-les-faits-s-accumulent-en-faveur-des-avantages-du-prive-en-sante" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:05:49 +0000 iedm 49668 at http://www.iedm.org Les faits s’accumulent en faveur des avantages du privé en santé http://www.iedm.org/node/49667 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Le Devoir, p. A07 </div> </div> </div> <p>Le r&ocirc;le accru confi&eacute; au secteur priv&eacute; dans le domaine des soins de sant&eacute;.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/49667" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Thu, 14 Aug 2014 11:04:30 +0000 iedm 49667 at http://www.iedm.org Some environmentalist groups exaggerate: Quebec’s forests are not threatened, according to a new documentary and an Economic Note from the MEI http://www.iedm.org/49656-some-environmentalist-groups-exaggerate-quebec-s-forests-are-not-threatened-according-to-a-new-documentary-and-an-economic <p><strong>Montreal, Thursday, August 14, 2014 &ndash;</strong> For the second year in a row, the Montreal Economic Institute (MEI) went out into the field to film a video showing how forestry activities coexist with wildlife. The short documentary that was produced sketches a realistic picture of the Quebec forest from the point of view of those who make their living from it, contrasting sharply with alarmist talk suggesting that harvesting the forest jeopardizes its future and the species that live there.<br /> </p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/49656-some-environmentalist-groups-exaggerate-quebec-s-forests-are-not-threatened-according-to-a-new-documentary-and-an-economic" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Thu, 14 Aug 2014 09:00:00 +0000 iedm 49656 at http://www.iedm.org Des groupes écologistes exagèrent : la forêt québécoise n’est pas menacée, selon un documentaire et une Note économique de l’IEDM http://www.iedm.org/node/49655 <p><strong>Montr&eacute;al, le jeudi 14 ao&ucirc;t 2014 &ndash;</strong> Pour une deuxi&egrave;me ann&eacute;e cons&eacute;cutive, l&rsquo;Institut &eacute;conomique de Montr&eacute;al (IEDM) est all&eacute; sur le terrain tourner une vid&eacute;o pour voir comment les activit&eacute;s foresti&egrave;res coexistent avec la faune et la flore.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/node/49655" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Thu, 14 Aug 2014 09:00:00 +0000 iedm 49655 at http://www.iedm.org Are Quebec's Forests Threatened? http://www.iedm.org/49638-are-quebec-s-forests-threatened <div class="field field-type-text field-field-subtitle"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Economic Note explaining the impact of logging on the future of our forests and the survival of the woodland caribou </div> </div> </div> <p>Environmental groups claim that logging is jeopardizing the future of our forests as well as the survival of the species that live in them. Is this an accurate picture of the reality of forestry in Quebec? The aggregate data do not show that our forests are in decline. On the contrary, forest cover has increased slightly between the first forest inventory in 1979 and the most recent one in 2002.</p><div class="field field-type-text field-field-full"> <div class="field-label">Full Content:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><strong>This <em>Economic Note</em> was prepared by Jasmin Gu&eacute;nette, Vice President of the MEI, and Pierre Desrochers, Assistant Professor at the University of Toronto Mississauga and Research Associate at the MEI, with the collaboration of Alexandre Moreau, Public Policy Analyst at the MEI.</strong><br /> <br /> Environmental groups claim that logging is jeopardizing the future of our forests(1) as well as the survival of the species that live in them. Is this an accurate picture of the reality of forestry in Quebec? The aggregate data do not show that our forests are in decline. On the contrary, forest cover has increased slightly between the first forest inventory in 1979 and the&nbsp;most recent one in 2002.(2) As for the overall distribution of the different stages of forest development, it has remained almost unchanged since the first forest inventory, with young, mature and regenerated forests accounting for about the same share of public forestland.(3)<br /> <br /> The preservation of forest cover is due to a variety of factors. First of all, the increasing productivity of agricultural land allows more food to be grown on a smaller area, which reduces the need to clear forests. The total area of protected lands, which include among other things old-growth forests, rare forests and shelter forests, has also increased. As of March 31, 2014, they covered 9.11% of the province, compared to just 2.84% in 1999.(4)<br /> <br /> Moreover, even in places where trees are harvested, new techniques for logging, reforestation and soil preparation have reduced the discrepancy between managed and natural forests by creating landscapes that imitate the diversity and irregularity of natural forests.(5) Today, practically all of Quebec&rsquo;s public forests are harvested according to strict certification standards set by the FSC, the CSA and the SFI, which guarantee sustainable management practices.(6)<br /> <br /> <strong>The different forest management systems</strong><br /> <br /> Beyond these broad trends, the state of our forests also depends on the government&rsquo;s expectations with regard to forest management, which are set down in its forest management system.<br /> <br /> Under the forest concession system, which was in effect from 1826 to 1987, concession holders had wide-ranging responsibilities in allocating lumber volumes, managing inventory, preparing management plans and protecting their lands from fire. These concessions were granted to companies with no time limits, as long as the government&rsquo;s pre-established conditions were respected.(7)<br /> <br /> Concession holders being the equivalent of owners of the land, it was to their long-term advantage to invest in and care for their property. They also had an interest in sustainably harvesting the forests they were granted since the profitability of their companies depended on it.<br /> <br /> As pointed out in the Duchesneau report, prepared for the Commission for the study of public forest management in Quebec in 2004, apart from a few minor cases, it was generally admitted that the claim holders fulfilled their responsibilities adequately.(8)<br /> <br /> However, the governments in power in the 1970s and 1980s thought that the forest concession system was incompatible with the goal of maximizing economic benefits, and therefore incapable of responding to the expected increase in demand for paper and lumber on the global market. Not only were claim holders not overharvesting the forests, but they were accused of not harvesting them enough. In 1971, the government evaluated that concession holders were only harvesting 65% of the &ldquo;annual allowable cut,&rdquo; which corresponds to the maximum forest volume that can be harvested annually without reducing the productive capacity of the forestry sector.(9)<br /> <br /> This perception that forestry companies were not harvesting the forest enough led governments to gradually abolish the forest concession system starting in 1974. This process ended in 1987 with the adoption of the <em>Forest Act</em>, which introduced timber supply and forest management agreements (TSFMAs) with 25-year terms. The government thereby took control of the allocation of trees and introduced new forest management rules.(10)<br /> <br /> The revocation of forest concessions happened in parallel with the allocation of logging rights in public forests that were specifically meant to be held in reserve for the needs of the forestry industry (&ldquo;for&ecirc;ts domaniales&rdquo;). The total surface area of these forests more than tripled between 1971 and 1985, finally growing to double the total surface area of forest concessions.(11)<br /> <br /> Following these reforms, the annual tree harvest from all public forests increased substantially. Between 1970 and 2000, the harvest of softwood species grew by 72%, even surpassing the total allowable cut in 1985 for this kind of harvest.(12)<br /> <br /> A study of the evolution of the harvest and of the annual allowable cut for public forests found no overharvesting during the forest concession period (see Figure 1 on iedm.org). It is only after the abolition of concessions that some instances of exceeding the annual allowable cut can be observed around the turn of the 21st century before the harvest fell in the mid-2000s due to falling demand in the United States.(13)<br /> <br /> This harvest increase under the TSFMA system was a turning point in the management of public forests, as different reports brought up the difficulty of adequately evaluating the true annual allowable cut and raised the hypothesis of overharvesting.(14) Paradoxically, although this situation was in large part due to government intervention, it justified the near-total centralization of forest management in the hands of governmental organizations.<br /> <br /> The new forest management system that went into effect April&nbsp;1, 2013 replaced the TSFMAs with supply guarantees with terms of five years or less, at the Minister&rsquo;s discretion. This new system gives the government almost total responsibility when it comes to the forests, including forest planning, the follow-up and monitoring of forest operations, the granting of forestry rights, timber scaling and the auctioning off of a portion of the wood.(15)<br /> <br /> Whereas companies under the forest concession system, and even under the TSFMA system up to a point, had a long-term financial interest in managing the forests in such a way as to ensure that they would last, they no longer have any autonomy today and must simply follow the directives of government agencies from one year to the next (see Table 1 on iedm.org).<br /> <br /> This new system is already raising concerns regarding its capacity to reconcile the protection of the forest and the dynamism of the industry. On the one hand, the sustainable harvesting of the forest depends solely on the foresight of civil servants and the electoral interests of politicians. On the other hand, the uncertainty regarding the term lengths of supply guarantees could discourage investment and entail job losses.<br /> <br /> The committee entrusted with the task of preparing a report for the first year of the new forest management system recently highlighted its dubious effectiveness by pointing out the lack of communication from the relevant government agencies and the lack of transparency in the lumber marketing process.(16) Forestry groups have for their part denounced increased harvesting costs and operating delays, as well as the duplication of tasks.(17)<br /> <br /> To meet its economic and political goals, the government contributed to the overharvesting of the forests under the TSFMA system. Today, while forest cover is not shrinking, there are doubts about the new forest management system&rsquo;s economic impact on the forestry sector, which employed 60,082 people in 2013 and represented around 2.1% of the Quebec economy&mdash;more than the mining and energy sectors.(18)<br /> <br /> <strong>The Woodland Caribou</strong><br /> <br /> Another criticism from environmentalist groups is that activeities related to logging threaten the survival of a few thousand woodland caribou living in Quebec&rsquo;s managed forests.(19)<br /> <br /> In reality, however, other human activities like hunting have historically been of greater importance. Moreover, recent methods of ecosystem-based forest management try to recreate conditions similar to natural disturbances like fire, to which the species has always succeeded in adapting. According to specialists, the main problem related to forestry is that it facilitates the movement and arrival of other members of the deer family (moose and white-tailed deer) and their predators (grey wolves and black bears), which also hunt woodland caribou.(20)<br /> <br /> While the matter is complex, Environment Canada studies have emphasized the fact that &ldquo;forestry activities can take place in the caribou&rsquo;s habitat without threatening the species, as long as their cumulative effects do not destroy the biological and physical attributes required for its survival and recovery.&rdquo;(21)<br /> <br /> In the winter of 2012, Quebec&rsquo;s Department of Natural Resources carried out a woodland caribou population survey in the Saguenay&mdash;Lac-Saint-Jean region, allowing for the first time for a comparison of the state of the population over time for a given area. From the 1999 survey to the 2012 survey, the population doubled from 115 to 247 individuals.(22) This occurred while nearly 70% of the overall land area in the region was disrupted by forestry operations.(23) The study stipulates that it is difficult to identify exactly the reason or reasons that explain the observed population increase.<br /> <br /> It is important to note that the reports prepared by the &Eacute;quipe de r&eacute;tablissement du caribou forestier au Qu&eacute;bec and by Environment Canada underline significant margins of error that leave room for doubt regarding the precision of observations on the changing state of the species. Although the population of woodland caribou is falling in certain zones, it is rising in others, and the reasons for this are not well understood. Critics who point the finger specifically at the forestry industry are therefore jumping to conclusions that are not justified by the available data.<br /> <br /> <strong>Conclusion</strong><br /> <br /> Quebec&rsquo;s forests are not about to disappear, and the forest cover has even increased slightly since 1979. Moreover, contrary to what is often said, far from imposing their will, forestry companies have very little room to manoeuvre since the abolition of the forest concession system. Essentially, it is the government that manages Quebec&rsquo;s forests today, a situation that raises numerous concerns with regard to the future of the industry.<br /> <br /> This important economic activity does not have a disastrous environmental impact on the ecosystem, contrary to certain myths. Rather, it is similar to agriculture, in that it allows the forest to continually regenerate itself, harvest after harvest.<br /> <br /> <strong>References</strong><br /> <br /> 1. See for example Nicolas Mainville, &ldquo;Tapis rouge pour les coupes &agrave; blanc : ne faisons pas une croix sur nos derni&egrave;res for&ecirc;ts vierges,&rdquo; <em>Le Huffington Post Qu&eacute;bec</em>, March 21, 2014.<br /> 2. By 0.51 percentage points. Data compiled by the Quebec Department of Natural Resources and transmitted to the authors.<br /> 3. Quebec Department of Natural Resources, Directions des inventaires forestiers, <em>Portrait de l&rsquo;&eacute;volution de la for&ecirc;t publique sous am&eacute;nagement du Qu&eacute;bec m&eacute;ridional des ann&eacute;es 1970 aux ann&eacute;es 2000</em>, December 2009, p. 17.<br /> 4. Quebec Department of Sustainable Development, Environment and the Fight against Climate Change, &ldquo;Registre des aires prot&eacute;g&eacute;es.&rdquo;<br /> 5. Centre d&rsquo;enseignement et de recherche en foresterie de Sainte-Foy Inc. and Quebec Department of Natural Resources, Direction de l&rsquo;environnement et de la protection des for&ecirc;ts, <em>Manuel de r&eacute;f&eacute;rence pour l&rsquo;am&eacute;nagement &eacute;cosyst&eacute;mique des for&ecirc;ts au Qu&eacute;bec</em>, February 2010, pp. 8, 31-36.<br /> 6. Quebec Forest Industry Council, &ldquo;La certification foresti&egrave;re au Qu&eacute;bec,&rdquo; June 2011, p. 2.<br /> 7. Michel Duchesneau, <em>Gestion de la for&ecirc;t publique et modes d&rsquo;allocation de la mati&egrave;re ligneuse avant 1986</em>, Report prepared for the Commission for the study of public forest management in Quebec, May 2004, pp. 1-2.<br /> 8. <em>Ibid</em>., p. 10.<br /> 9. Eric Alvarez, <em>Influence d&rsquo;un si&egrave;cle de r&eacute;colte foresti&egrave;re sur la for&ecirc;t m&eacute;lang&eacute;e temp&eacute;r&eacute;e de la Mauricie</em>, Laval University Thesis, May 2009, p. 124.<br /> 10. Pierre Brochu, &ldquo;Le r&eacute;gime juridique du contrat d&rsquo;approvisionnement et d&rsquo;am&eacute;nagement forestier,&rdquo; <em>Les Cahiers de droit</em>, Vol. 31, No. 3, 1990, p. 739.<br /> 11. Michel Duchesneau, <em>op. cit.</em>, footnote 7, p. 11.<br /> 12. Gilbert Paill&eacute; <em>et al</em>., <em>Analyse du rapport du Forestier en chef sur la possibilit&eacute; foresti&egrave;re 2008-2013</em>, Report of the Paill&eacute; Committee to the Office of the Ordre des ing&eacute;nieurs forestiers du Qu&eacute;bec, March 2007, pp. 7-8.<br /> 13. Eric Alvarez, &ldquo;Regards sur l&rsquo;histoire de l&rsquo;am&eacute;nagement forestier au Qu&eacute;bec &mdash; 1: la surexploitation des for&ecirc;ts,&rdquo; <em>La For&ecirc;t &agrave; C&oelig;ur</em>, June 2014.<br /> 14. See in particular the documentary <em>L&rsquo;Erreur bor&eacute;ale</em> directed by Richard Desjardins in 1999; V&eacute;rificateur g&eacute;n&eacute;ral du Qu&eacute;bec, <em>Gestion de la ressource foresti&egrave;re : V&eacute;rification men&eacute;e aupr&egrave;s du minist&egrave;re des Ressources naturelles</em>, Report to the National Assembly for the year 2001-2002, Tome II, Chapter 4. Commission d&rsquo;&eacute;tude sur la gestion de la for&ecirc;t publique qu&eacute;b&eacute;coise, Rapport, Chapter 5, December 2004.<br /> 15. Government of Quebec, <em>Sustainable Forest Development Act</em>, articles 104 and 52, July 2014.<br /> 16. Mari&egrave;ve Paradis, &ldquo;Les lacunes du nouveau r&eacute;gime forestier,&rdquo; <em>Op&eacute;rations foresti&egrave;res et de scierie</em>, May 2014.<br /> 17. F&eacute;d&eacute;ration qu&eacute;b&eacute;coise des coop&eacute;ratives foresti&egrave;res and Association qu&eacute;b&eacute;coise des entrepreneurs en am&eacute;nagement forestier, &ldquo;Les entrepreneurs forestiers craignent pour la prochaine saison,&rdquo; Press release, <em>Le Cyberjournal du Saguenay&mdash;Lac-Saint-Jean</em>, February 17, 2014.<br /> 18. Quebec Department of Forests, Wildlife and Parks, &ldquo;Importance des ressources naturelles dans l&rsquo;&eacute;conomie qu&eacute;b&eacute;coise,&rdquo; May 2014.<br /> 19. See the Canadian Parks and Wilderness Society and the David Suzuki Foundation, <em>Population Critical: How Are Caribou Faring?</em> December 2013, pp.&nbsp;6-7; Greenpeace Canada, &ldquo;Resolute Forest Products.&rdquo;<br /> 20. &Eacute;quipe de r&eacute;tablissement du caribou forestier au Qu&eacute;bec, <em>Plan de r&eacute;tablissement du caribou forestier (</em>Rangifer tarandus caribou<em>) au Qu&eacute;bec &mdash; 2013-2023</em>, May 2013, pp. 31-32, 47.<br /> 21. <em>Ibid</em>., p. 29.<br /> 22. Quebec Department of Natural Resources, Direction de l&rsquo;expertise du Saguenay&mdash;Lac-Saint-Jean, <em>Inventaire du caribou forestier &agrave; l&rsquo;hiver 2012 au Saguenay&mdash;Lac-Saint-Jean</em>, February 2013, p. 16.<br /> 23. Louis Tremblay, &ldquo;La population de caribou forestier a doubl&eacute;,&rdquo; <em>La Presse</em>, February 15, 2014.</p> </div> </div> </div> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/49638-are-quebec-s-forests-threatened" target="_blank">read more</a></p> Thu, 14 Aug 2014 09:00:00 +0000 iedm 49638 at http://www.iedm.org La forêt est-elle menacée au Québec? http://www.iedm.org/node/49637 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-subtitle"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Note économique expliquant l'impact de l'exploitation forestière sur l'avenir de la forêt et la survie du caribou forestier </div> </div> </div> <p>Des groupes &eacute;cologistes pr&eacute;tendent que l&#39;exploitation foresti&egrave;re compromet l&#39;avenir de la for&ecirc;t ainsi que la survie des esp&egrave;ces qui l&#39;habitent. Cette image correspond-elle bien &agrave; la r&eacute;alit&eacute; de l&#39;exploitation de la for&ecirc;t au Qu&eacute;bec? Les donn&eacute;es globales n&#39;indiquent aucun recul de la for&ecirc;t. Au contraire, le couvert forestier a l&eacute;g&egrave;rement augment&eacute; entre le premier inventaire forestier en 1979 et le plus r&eacute;cent en 2002.</p><div class="field field-type-text field-field-full"> <div class="field-label">Full Content:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><strong>Cette <em>Note &eacute;conomique</em> a &eacute;t&eacute; pr&eacute;par&eacute;e par Jasmin Gu&eacute;nette, vice-pr&eacute;sident de l&rsquo;IEDM, et Pierre Desrochers, professeur associ&eacute; de g&eacute;ographie &agrave; l&rsquo;Universit&eacute; de Toronto Mississauga et chercheur associ&eacute; &agrave; l&rsquo;IEDM, avec la collaboration d&rsquo;Alexandre Moreau, analyste des politiques publiques &agrave; l&rsquo;IEDM.</strong><br /> <br /> Des groupes &eacute;cologistes pr&eacute;tendent que l&rsquo;exploitation foresti&egrave;re compromet l&rsquo;avenir de la&nbsp;for&ecirc;t(1) ainsi que la survie des esp&egrave;ces qui l&rsquo;habitent. Cette image correspond-elle bien &agrave; la r&eacute;alit&eacute; de l&rsquo;exploitation de&nbsp;la for&ecirc;t au Qu&eacute;bec? Les&nbsp;donn&eacute;es globales n&rsquo;indiquent aucun recul de la for&ecirc;t. Au contraire, le couvert forestier a l&eacute;g&egrave;rement augment&eacute; entre le premier inventaire forestier en 1979 et le plus r&eacute;cent en 2002(2). La r&eacute;partition g&eacute;n&eacute;rale des diff&eacute;rents stades de d&eacute;veloppement de la for&ecirc;t est quant &agrave; elle&nbsp;demeur&eacute;e presque identique depuis le premier inventaire, les for&ecirc;ts jeunes, m&ucirc;res et r&eacute;g&eacute;n&eacute;r&eacute;es occupant en gros la m&ecirc;me portion de territoire des for&ecirc;ts publiques(3).<br /> <br /> La pr&eacute;servation du couvert forestier s&rsquo;explique par diverses raisons. En premier lieu, l&rsquo;augmentation de la productivit&eacute; des terres agricoles fait en sorte qu&rsquo;on peut produire plus d&rsquo;aliments sur une moindre surface, ce qui r&eacute;duit la n&eacute;cessit&eacute; de d&eacute;fricher des for&ecirc;ts. La superficie des aires prot&eacute;g&eacute;es, qui incluent notamment les for&ecirc;ts anciennes, les for&ecirc;ts rares et les for&ecirc;ts refuges, a &eacute;galement augment&eacute;. En date du 31 mars 2014, elles couvraient 9,11 % du territoire alors que cette proportion n&rsquo;&eacute;tait que de 2,84 % en 1999(4).<br /> <br /> Par ailleurs, m&ecirc;me l&agrave; o&ugrave; la for&ecirc;t est exploit&eacute;e, les nouvelles techniques de coupe, de reboisement et de pr&eacute;paration des sols permettent de r&eacute;duire l&rsquo;&eacute;cart entre la for&ecirc;t am&eacute;nag&eacute;e et la for&ecirc;t naturelle, en cr&eacute;ant des paysages qui reproduisent la diversit&eacute; et l&rsquo;irr&eacute;gularit&eacute; de cette derni&egrave;re(5). La presque totalit&eacute; de la for&ecirc;t publique qu&eacute;b&eacute;coise est aujourd&rsquo;hui exploit&eacute;e selon les normes rigoureuses des certifications FSC, CSA et SFI, qui garantissent des pratiques de gestion durable(6).<br /> <br /> <strong>Les diff&eacute;rents r&eacute;gimes forestiers</strong><br /> <br /> Au-del&agrave; de ces grandes tendances, l&rsquo;&eacute;tat de la for&ecirc;t d&eacute;pend &eacute;galement des attentes du gouvernement en ce qui a trait &agrave; l&rsquo;exploitation foresti&egrave;re, qui se manifestent par le biais du r&eacute;gime forestier.<br /> <br /> Sous le r&eacute;gime des concessions, qui a &eacute;t&eacute; en vigueur de 1826 &agrave; 1987, les concessionnaires avaient de larges responsabilit&eacute;s, soit celles d&rsquo;attribuer les volumes de bois, de g&eacute;rer les inventaires, de confectionner les plans d&rsquo;am&eacute;nagement et de prot&eacute;ger leur territoire contre le feu. Ces concessions &eacute;taient octroy&eacute;es aux entreprises sans limite de temps, dans la mesure o&ugrave; les conditions pr&eacute;&eacute;tablies par le gouvernement &eacute;taient respect&eacute;es(7).<br /> <br /> &Eacute;tant l&rsquo;&eacute;quivalent d&rsquo;un propri&eacute;taire du territoire, le concessionnaire avait avantage &agrave; investir et &agrave; am&eacute;nager celui-ci dans une perspective de long terme. Il avait &eacute;galement int&eacute;r&ecirc;t &agrave; exploiter durablement les for&ecirc;ts qui lui &eacute;taient octroy&eacute;es puisque la profitabilit&eacute; de son entreprise en d&eacute;pendait.<br /> <br /> Comme le souligne le rapport Duchesneau, pr&eacute;par&eacute; pour la Commission d&rsquo;&eacute;tude sur la gestion de la for&ecirc;t publique qu&eacute;b&eacute;coise en 2004, &agrave; l&rsquo;exception de quelques cas de moindre importance, il &eacute;tait g&eacute;n&eacute;ralement admis que les concessionnaires s&rsquo;acquittaient convenablement de leurs responsabilit&eacute;s(8).<br /> <br /> Toutefois, les gouvernements dans les ann&eacute;es 1970 et 1980 consid&eacute;raient que le syst&egrave;me des concessions &eacute;tait incompatible avec l&rsquo;objectif de maximisation des retomb&eacute;es &eacute;conomiques et donc, incapable de r&eacute;pondre &agrave; l&rsquo;augmentation anticip&eacute;e de la demande en papier et en bois de construction sur le march&eacute; mondial. Non seulement les concessionnaires ne surexploitaient pas la for&ecirc;t, mais on les accusait de ne pas l&rsquo;exploiter suffisamment. Le niveau d&rsquo;exploitation de la &laquo; possibilit&eacute; foresti&egrave;re &raquo;, qui correspond au volume maximum des r&eacute;coltes annuelles que l&rsquo;on peut pr&eacute;lever sans diminuer la capacit&eacute; productive du milieu forestier, &eacute;tait &eacute;valu&eacute; par le gouvernement &agrave; seulement 65 % en 1971(9).<br /> <br /> Cette perception que les entreprises foresti&egrave;res n&rsquo;exploitaient pas suffisamment la for&ecirc;t a amen&eacute; les gouvernements &agrave; abolir graduellement le r&eacute;gime des concessions &agrave; partir de 1974. Ce processus aboutira en 1987 avec l&rsquo;adoption de la <em>Loi sur les for&ecirc;ts</em>, qui introduisait des contrats d&rsquo;approvisionnement et d&rsquo;am&eacute;nagement forestier (CAAF) d&rsquo;une dur&eacute;e de 25 ans. Le gouvernement prenait ainsi le contr&ocirc;le de l&rsquo;attribution de la mati&egrave;re ligneuse et instaurait de nouvelles r&egrave;gles encadrant l&rsquo;am&eacute;nagement forestier(10).<br /> <br /> La r&eacute;vocation des concessions foresti&egrave;res s&rsquo;est aussi faite en parall&egrave;le avec l&rsquo;attribution de droits de coupe dans les for&ecirc;ts domaniales, un type de territoire qui devait servir sp&eacute;cifiquement de r&eacute;serves pour les besoins de l&rsquo;industrie foresti&egrave;re. La superficie de ces for&ecirc;ts domaniales a plus que tripl&eacute; entre 1971 et 1985, pour finalement atteindre le double de la superficie des concessions foresti&egrave;res(11).<br /> <br /> &Agrave; la suite de ces r&eacute;formes, la r&eacute;colte annuelle de bois en for&ecirc;t publique a substantiellement augment&eacute;. Entre 1970 et 2000, la r&eacute;colte de bois provenant d&rsquo;essences r&eacute;sineuses a cr&ucirc; de 72 %, d&eacute;passant m&ecirc;me la possibilit&eacute; foresti&egrave;re en 1985 pour ce type de r&eacute;colte(12).<br /> <br /> Une &eacute;tude sur l&rsquo;&eacute;volution de la r&eacute;colte et de la possibilit&eacute; foresti&egrave;re en for&ecirc;t publique n&rsquo;a constat&eacute; aucune surexploitation lors de la p&eacute;riode des concessions (voir Figure 1 sur iedm.org). Ce n&rsquo;est qu&rsquo;apr&egrave;s l&rsquo;abolition des concessions que l&rsquo;on observe quelques d&eacute;passements de la possibilit&eacute; foresti&egrave;re au tournant du 21e si&egrave;cle, avant que la r&eacute;colte ne chute &agrave; partir du milieu des ann&eacute;es 2000 &agrave; cause de la baisse de la demande aux &Eacute;tats-Unis(13).<br /> <br /> Cette hausse de la r&eacute;colte survenue sous le r&eacute;gime des CAAF marquera un tournant dans la gestion de la for&ecirc;t publique, alors que diff&eacute;rents rapports &eacute;voquent la difficult&eacute; d&rsquo;&eacute;valuer ad&eacute;quatement la possibilit&eacute; foresti&egrave;re r&eacute;elle et l&rsquo;hypoth&egrave;se d&rsquo;une surexploitation(14). &Eacute;tonnamment, bien que cette situation ait &eacute;t&eacute; en majeure partie attribuable &agrave; l&rsquo;intervention gouvernementale, elle justifiera une centralisation pratiquement compl&egrave;te de la gestion foresti&egrave;re entre les mains des organismes gouvernementaux.<br /> <br /> Le nouveau r&eacute;gime forestier entr&eacute; en vigueur le 1er avril 2013 a remplac&eacute; les CAAF par des garanties d&rsquo;approvisionnement d&rsquo;une dur&eacute;e de cinq ans ou moins, selon la volont&eacute; du ministre. Ce nouveau r&eacute;gime accorde au gouvernement la quasi-totalit&eacute; des responsabilit&eacute;s reli&eacute;es &agrave; la for&ecirc;t, soit la planification foresti&egrave;re, le suivi et le contr&ocirc;le des interventions foresti&egrave;res, l&rsquo;attribution des droits forestiers, le mesurage des bois et la mise aux ench&egrave;res d&rsquo;une partie des bois(15).<br /> <br /> Alors que les entreprises avaient des incitations financi&egrave;res &agrave; long terme &agrave; am&eacute;nager la for&ecirc;t en consid&eacute;rant sa p&eacute;rennit&eacute; sous le r&eacute;gime des concessions et, jusqu&rsquo;&agrave; un certain point, sous celui des CAAF, elles n&rsquo;ont plus aujourd&rsquo;hui aucune autonomie et doivent se contenter de suivre les directives des agences du gouvernement d&rsquo;une ann&eacute;e &agrave; l&rsquo;autre (voir Tableau 1 sur iedm.org).<br /> <br /> Ce nouveau r&eacute;gime suscite d&eacute;j&agrave; l&rsquo;inqui&eacute;tude quant &agrave; sa capacit&eacute; de concilier la protection de la for&ecirc;t et le dynamisme de l&rsquo;industrie. D&rsquo;une part, l&rsquo;exploitation durable de la for&ecirc;t d&eacute;pend uniquement de la pr&eacute;voyance des fonctionnaires et des int&eacute;r&ecirc;ts &eacute;lectoraux des politiciens. D&rsquo;autre part, l&rsquo;incertitude quant &agrave; la dur&eacute;e des garanties d&rsquo;approvisionnement pourrait d&eacute;courager l&rsquo;investissement et entra&icirc;ner des pertes d&rsquo;emplois.<br /> <br /> Le comit&eacute; charg&eacute; d&rsquo;&eacute;tablir un bilan de la premi&egrave;re ann&eacute;e de mise en &oelig;uvre du nouveau r&eacute;gime forestier a r&eacute;cemment mis en lumi&egrave;re son efficacit&eacute; douteuse en soulignant le manque de communication de la part des organismes gouvernementaux concern&eacute;s et de transparence dans le processus de mise en march&eacute; du bois(16). Des groupes d&rsquo;exploitants ont quant &agrave; eux d&eacute;plor&eacute; l&rsquo;augmentation des co&ucirc;ts d&rsquo;exploitation et des d&eacute;lais d&rsquo;op&eacute;ration, ainsi qu&rsquo;une duplication des t&acirc;ches(17).<br /> <br /> Pour r&eacute;pondre &agrave; ses objectifs &eacute;conomiques et politiques, le gouvernement a contribu&eacute; &agrave; la surexploitation de la for&ecirc;t sous le r&eacute;gime des CAAF. Aujourd&rsquo;hui, bien que le couvert forestier se maintienne, le nouveau r&eacute;gime forestier laisse planer des doutes quant &agrave; son impact &eacute;conomique sur l&rsquo;industrie. Le secteur forestier employait 60 082 personnes en 2013 et repr&eacute;sentait environ 2,1 % de l&rsquo;&eacute;conomie qu&eacute;b&eacute;coise, soit plus que les secteurs des mines et de l&rsquo;&eacute;nergie(18).<br /> <br /> <strong>Le caribou forestier</strong><br /> <br /> Une autre critique des groupes &eacute;cologistes est que les activit&eacute;s li&eacute;es &agrave; la coupe foresti&egrave;re menacent la survie des quelques milliers de caribous forestiers pr&eacute;sents dans les for&ecirc;ts am&eacute;nag&eacute;es qu&eacute;b&eacute;coises(19).<br /> <br /> Dans les faits cependant, d&rsquo;autres activit&eacute;s humaines telles que la chasse ont historiquement eu une plus grande importance. De plus, les m&eacute;thodes r&eacute;centes d&rsquo;am&eacute;nagement forestier &eacute;cosyst&eacute;mique cherchent &agrave; recr&eacute;er des conditions similaires aux perturbations naturelles telles que les feux, auxquels l&rsquo;esp&egrave;ce a toujours r&eacute;ussi &agrave; s&rsquo;adapter. Selon les sp&eacute;cialistes, le principal probl&egrave;me de l&rsquo;activit&eacute; foresti&egrave;re est qu&rsquo;elle facilite le mouvement et l&rsquo;arriv&eacute;e d&rsquo;autres cervid&eacute;s (orignaux et cerfs de Virginie) et de leurs pr&eacute;dateurs (loups gris et ours noirs) qui s&rsquo;attaquent &eacute;galement au caribou forestier(20).<br /> <br /> Bien que la question soit complexe, des &eacute;tudes d&rsquo;Environnement Canada ont soulign&eacute; le fait que &laquo; des activit&eacute;s peuvent avoir lieu dans l&rsquo;habitat du caribou sans menacer l&rsquo;esp&egrave;ce, tant que leurs effets cumulatifs ne d&eacute;truisent pas les attributs biologiques et physiques n&eacute;cessaires &agrave; sa survie et &agrave; son r&eacute;tablissement &raquo;(21).<br /> <br /> Le minist&egrave;re des Ressources naturelles du Qu&eacute;bec a proc&eacute;d&eacute; durant l&rsquo;hiver 2012 &agrave; un inventaire de population du caribou forestier au Saguenay&mdash;Lac-Saint-Jean permettant de comparer pour la premi&egrave;re fois l&rsquo;&eacute;tat des populations dans le temps sur une m&ecirc;me superficie. Le r&eacute;sultat est que la population a doubl&eacute; entre l&rsquo;inventaire de 1999 et celui de 2012, de 115 &agrave; 247 individus(22). Ceci est survenu alors que le territoire a &eacute;t&eacute; perturb&eacute;, sur pr&egrave;s de 70 % de sa superficie globale, par des op&eacute;rations foresti&egrave;res(23). L&rsquo;&eacute;tude souligne le fait qu&rsquo;il est difficile d&rsquo;identifier avec pr&eacute;cision la ou les raisons qui expliquent l&rsquo;augmentation de population observ&eacute;e.<br /> <br /> Il est important de noter que les rapports r&eacute;alis&eacute;s par l&rsquo;&Eacute;quipe de r&eacute;tablissement du caribou forestier au Qu&eacute;bec et par Environnement Canada soulignent une marge d&rsquo;erreur significative qui laisse planer des doutes quant &agrave; l&rsquo;exactitude des observations sur l&rsquo;&eacute;volution de l&rsquo;esp&egrave;ce. Bien que la population de caribous forestiers diminue dans certaines zones, on observe des augmentations dans d&rsquo;autres zones, sans que les causes soient connues avec certitude. Les critiques qui pointent sp&eacute;cifiquement du doigt l&rsquo;industrie foresti&egrave;re tirent donc des conclusions injustifi&eacute;es des donn&eacute;es disponibles.<br /> <br /> <strong>Conclusion</strong><br /> <br /> La for&ecirc;t qu&eacute;b&eacute;coise n&rsquo;est pas en voie de dispara&icirc;tre et le couvert forestier a m&ecirc;me l&eacute;g&egrave;rement augment&eacute; depuis 1979. Par ailleurs, contrairement &agrave; ce qui est souvent affirm&eacute;, loin d&rsquo;imposer leur loi, les compagnies foresti&egrave;res ont, depuis l&rsquo;abolition du r&eacute;gime des concessions, une marge de man&oelig;uvre extr&ecirc;mement limit&eacute;e. C&rsquo;est essentiellement l&rsquo;&Eacute;tat qui g&egrave;re aujourd&rsquo;hui la for&ecirc;t au Qu&eacute;bec, une situation qui soul&egrave;ve de nombreuses inqui&eacute;tudes en ce qui a trait &agrave; l&rsquo;avenir de l&rsquo;industrie.<br /> <br /> Cette activit&eacute; &eacute;conomique importante n&rsquo;a pas l&rsquo;impact environnemental d&eacute;sastreux sur l&rsquo;&eacute;cosyst&egrave;me que v&eacute;hiculent certains mythes. Elle devrait plut&ocirc;t &ecirc;tre compar&eacute;e &agrave; l&rsquo;agriculture dans la mesure o&ugrave; elle permet &agrave; la for&ecirc;t de se r&eacute;g&eacute;n&eacute;rer constamment r&eacute;colte apr&egrave;s r&eacute;colte.<br /> <br /> <strong>R&eacute;f&eacute;rences</strong><br /> <br /> 1. Voir par exemple Nicolas Mainville, &laquo; Tapis rouge pour les coupes &agrave; blanc : ne&nbsp;faisons pas une croix sur nos derni&egrave;res for&ecirc;ts vierges &raquo;, <em>Le Huffington Post Qu&eacute;bec</em>, 21 mars 2014.<br /> 2. De 0,51 point de pourcentage. Donn&eacute;es compil&eacute;es par le minist&egrave;re des Ressources naturelles et transmises aux auteurs.<br /> 3. Minist&egrave;re des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune, Directions des inventaires forestiers, <em>Portrait de l&rsquo;&eacute;volution de la for&ecirc;t publique sous am&eacute;nagement du Qu&eacute;bec m&eacute;ridional des ann&eacute;es 1970 aux ann&eacute;es 2000</em>, d&eacute;cembre 2009, p. 17.<br /> 4. D&eacute;veloppement durable, Environnement et Lutte contre les changements climatiques, &laquo; Registre des aires prot&eacute;g&eacute;es &raquo;.<br /> 5. Centre d&rsquo;enseignement et de recherche en foresterie de Sainte-Foy Inc. et minist&egrave;re des Ressources naturelles et de la Faune, Direction de l&rsquo;environnement et de la protection des for&ecirc;ts, <em>Manuel de r&eacute;f&eacute;rence pour l&rsquo;am&eacute;nagement &eacute;cosyst&eacute;mique des for&ecirc;ts au Qu&eacute;bec</em>, f&eacute;vrier 2010, p. 8, 31-36.<br /> 6. Conseil de l&rsquo;industrie foresti&egrave;re du Qu&eacute;bec, &laquo; La certification foresti&egrave;re au Qu&eacute;bec &raquo;, juin 2011, p. 2.<br /> 7. Michel Duchesneau, <em>Gestion de la for&ecirc;t publique et modes d&rsquo;allocation de la mati&egrave;re ligneuse avant 1986</em>, Rapport pr&eacute;par&eacute; pour la Commission d&rsquo;&eacute;tude sur la gestion de la for&ecirc;t publique qu&eacute;b&eacute;coise, mai 2004, p. 1-2.<br /> 8. <em>Ibid</em>., p. 10.<br /> 9. Eric Alvarez, <em>Influence d&rsquo;un si&egrave;cle de r&eacute;colte foresti&egrave;re sur la for&ecirc;t m&eacute;lang&eacute;e temp&eacute;r&eacute;e de la Mauricie</em>, Th&egrave;se de l&rsquo;universit&eacute; Laval, mai 2009, p. 124.<br /> 10. Pierre Brochu, &laquo; Le r&eacute;gime juridique du contrat d&rsquo;approvisionnement et d&rsquo;am&eacute;nagement forestier &raquo;, <em>Les Cahiers de droit</em>, vol. 31, no 3, 1990, p. 739.<br /> 11. Michel Duchesneau, <em>op. cit</em>., note 7, p. 11.<br /> 12. Gilbert Paill&eacute; <em>et al</em>., <em>Analyse du rapport du Forestier en chef sur la possibilit&eacute; foresti&egrave;re 2008-2013</em>, Rapport du Comit&eacute; Paill&eacute; au Bureau de l&rsquo;Ordre des ing&eacute;nieurs forestiers du Qu&eacute;bec, mars 2007, p. 7-8.<br /> 13. Eric Alvarez, &laquo; Regards sur l&rsquo;histoire de l&rsquo;am&eacute;nagement forestier au Qu&eacute;bec &mdash; 1&nbsp;: la surexploitation des for&ecirc;ts &raquo;, <em>La For&ecirc;t &agrave; C&oelig;ur</em>, juin 2014.<br /> 14. Voir en particulier le documentaire <em>L&rsquo;Erreur bor&eacute;ale</em> r&eacute;alis&eacute; par Richard Desjardins en 1999; V&eacute;rificateur g&eacute;n&eacute;ral du Qu&eacute;bec, <em>Gestion de la ressource foresti&egrave;re : V&eacute;rification men&eacute;e aupr&egrave;s du minist&egrave;re des Ressources naturelles</em>, Rapport &agrave; l&rsquo;Assembl&eacute;e nationale pour l&rsquo;ann&eacute;e 2001-2002, Tome II, chapitre 4; Commission d&rsquo;&eacute;tude sur la gestion de la for&ecirc;t publique qu&eacute;b&eacute;coise, Rapport, chapitre 5, d&eacute;cembre 2004.<br /> 15. Gouvernement du Qu&eacute;bec, <em>Loi sur l&rsquo;am&eacute;nagement durable du territoire forestier</em>, article 104 et 52, juillet 2014.<br /> 16. Mari&egrave;ve Paradis, &laquo; Les lacunes du nouveau r&eacute;gime forestier &raquo;, <em>Op&eacute;rations foresti&egrave;res et de scierie</em>, mai 2014.<br /> 17. F&eacute;d&eacute;ration qu&eacute;b&eacute;coise des coop&eacute;ratives foresti&egrave;res et Association qu&eacute;b&eacute;coise des entrepreneurs en am&eacute;nagement forestier, &laquo; Les entrepreneurs forestiers craignent pour la prochaine saison &raquo;, Communiqu&eacute; de presse, <em>Le Cyberjournal du Saguenay&mdash;Lac-Saint-Jean</em>, 17 f&eacute;vrier 2014.<br /> 18. Minist&egrave;re des For&ecirc;ts, de la Faune et des Parcs, &laquo; Importance des ressources naturelles dans l&rsquo;&eacute;conomie qu&eacute;b&eacute;coise &raquo;, mai 2014.<br /> 19. Voir Soci&eacute;t&eacute; pour la nature et les parcs du Canada et Fondation David Suzuki, <em>Populations menac&eacute;es : Comment le caribou s&rsquo;en sort-il?</em>, d&eacute;cembre 2013, p. 6-7; Greenpeace Canada, &laquo; Produits forestiers R&eacute;solu &raquo;.<br /> 20. &Eacute;quipe de r&eacute;tablissement du caribou forestier au Qu&eacute;bec, <em>Plan de r&eacute;tablissement du caribou forestier (</em>Rangifer tarandus caribou<em>) au Qu&eacute;bec - 2013-2023</em>, mai 2013, p. 31-32, 47.<br /> 21. <em>Ibid</em>., p. 29.<br /> 22. Minist&egrave;re des Ressources naturelles, Direction de l&rsquo;expertise du Saguenay&mdash;Lac-Saint-Jean, <em>Inventaire du caribou forestier &agrave; l&rsquo;hiver 2012 au Saguenay&mdash;Lac-Saint-Jean</em>, f&eacute;vrier 2013, p. 16.<br /> 23. 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