http://www.iedm.org/fr/rss fr L'héritage de Milton Friedman http://www.iedm.org/fr/62645-l-heritage-de-milton-friedman <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/jasmin-guenette, p. web </div> </div> </div> <p>Portrait de l&#39;influent &eacute;conomiste Milton Friedman.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/62645-l-heritage-de-milton-friedman" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 29 Jul 2016 02:22:39 +0000 iedm 62645 at http://www.iedm.org L'héritage de Milton Friedman http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62644 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/jasmin-guenette, p. web </div> </div> </div> <p>Portrait of the influential economist Milton Friedman.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62644" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 29 Jul 2016 02:22:39 +0000 iedm 62644 at http://www.iedm.org Gentrification helps everyone, be it in St-Henri, HoMa or elsewhere http://www.iedm.org/fr/62600-gentrification-helps-everyone-be-it-in-st-henri-homa-or-elsewhere <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Montreal Gazette, p. A8 </div> </div> </div> <p>La gentrification, combin&eacute;e avec de bonnes politiques de logement, aide tout le monde, y compris les pauvres.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/62600-gentrification-helps-everyone-be-it-in-st-henri-homa-or-elsewhere" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Thu, 28 Jul 2016 12:24:46 +0000 iedm 62600 at http://www.iedm.org Gentrification helps everyone, be it in St-Henri, HoMa or elsewhere http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62599 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Montreal Gazette, p. A8 </div> </div> </div> <p>Gentrification, when combined with sound housing policy, helps everyone, including the poor.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62599" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Thu, 28 Jul 2016 12:23:26 +0000 iedm 62599 at http://www.iedm.org Pour un HoMa riche et prospère http://www.iedm.org/fr/62596-pour-un-homa-riche-et-prospere <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> La Presse+, p. web </div> </div> </div> <p>La gentrification, combin&eacute;e avec de bonnes politiques de logement, aide tout le monde, y compris les pauvres.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/62596-pour-un-homa-riche-et-prospere" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Thu, 28 Jul 2016 09:51:00 +0000 iedm 62596 at http://www.iedm.org Pour un HoMa riche et prospère http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62595 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> La Presse+, p. web </div> </div> </div> <p>Gentrification, when combined with sound housing policy, helps everyone, including the poor.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62595" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Thu, 28 Jul 2016 09:48:48 +0000 iedm 62595 at http://www.iedm.org Le Point – Les bénéfices considérables de la gentrification http://www.iedm.org/fr/62594-le-point-les-benefices-considerables-de-la-gentrification <div class="field field-type-text field-field-subtitle"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Point décrivant comment la gentrification, combinée avec de bonnes politiques de logement, aide tout le monde, y compris les pauvres </div> </div> </div> <p>La gentrification est un processus par lequel des familles de classe moyenne et des jeunes professionnels s&rsquo;&eacute;tablissent dans des quartiers populaires. Ce processus, qui n&rsquo;est aucunement limit&eacute; &agrave; Montr&eacute;al, a suscit&eacute; une certaine r&eacute;sistance de la part de militants antigentrification, dont certains ont eu recours &agrave; la violence pour s&rsquo;opposer &agrave; ce qu&rsquo;ils consid&egrave;rent comme un d&eacute;placement de population.</p><div class="field field-type-text field-field-full"> <div class="field-label">Contenu complet:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><strong>Ce <em>Point </em>a &eacute;t&eacute; pr&eacute;par&eacute; par Vincent Geloso, chercheur associ&eacute; &agrave; l&rsquo;IEDM, et Jasmin Gu&eacute;nette, vice-pr&eacute;sident de l&rsquo;IEDM. <em>La&nbsp;Collection R&eacute;glementation de l&rsquo;IEDM vise &agrave; examiner les cons&eacute;quences souvent impr&eacute;vues pour les individus et les entreprises de divers lois et r&egrave;glements qui s&rsquo;&eacute;cartent de leurs objectifs d&eacute;clar&eacute;s.</em></strong><br /> <br /> La gentrification est un processus par lequel des familles de classe moyenne et des jeunes professionnels s&rsquo;&eacute;tablissent dans des quartiers populaires. Ce processus, qui n&rsquo;est aucunement limit&eacute; &agrave; Montr&eacute;al, a suscit&eacute; une certaine r&eacute;sistance de la part de militants antigentrification, dont certains ont eu recours &agrave; la violence pour s&rsquo;opposer &agrave; ce qu&rsquo;ils consid&egrave;rent comme un d&eacute;placement de population. Pourtant, la gentrification est un ph&eacute;nom&egrave;ne largement r&eacute;pandu qui entra&icirc;ne des r&eacute;sultats b&eacute;n&eacute;fiques pour tout le monde &ndash; y compris les plus pauvres de la soci&eacute;t&eacute; &ndash; et dont les effets n&eacute;gatifs peuvent &ecirc;tre att&eacute;nu&eacute;s par de bonnes politiques &eacute;conomiques.<br /> <br /> <strong>Un processus r&eacute;pandu et b&eacute;n&eacute;fique</strong><br /> <br /> L&rsquo;embourgeoisement est un processus qui n&rsquo;est g&eacute;n&eacute;ralement pas planifi&eacute; et qui &eacute;merge &agrave; partir de la base, en lien avec les fluctuations de popularit&eacute; de diff&eacute;rents quartiers(1). &Agrave; Montr&eacute;al, le Plateau Mont-Royal a d&rsquo;abord &eacute;t&eacute; un quartier ouvrier qui a connu un d&eacute;clin durant la Grande D&eacute;pression, mais il est depuis devenu un quartier habit&eacute; par la classe moyenne(2). L&rsquo;activit&eacute; &eacute;conomique &agrave; Montr&eacute;al a progressivement migr&eacute; vers l&rsquo;ouest, ce qui a lib&eacute;r&eacute; des logements et ouvert la porte &agrave; des occasions de gentrification dans l&rsquo;est de la ville(3).<br /> <br /> Les b&eacute;n&eacute;fices positifs &agrave; long terme de la gentrification sont souvent associ&eacute;s &agrave; une croissance de la diversit&eacute; sociale(4). On observe alors une augmentation du capital social, que l&rsquo;on peut d&eacute;finir comme les liens entre les individus qui permettent d&rsquo;accro&icirc;tre les connaissances, la productivit&eacute; et les comp&eacute;tences(5). Cela m&egrave;ne &agrave; plus d&rsquo;opportunit&eacute;s d&rsquo;emploi, plus de commerces et de restaurants et une vie de quartier plus riche.<br /> <br /> En plus de renverser le d&eacute;clin &eacute;conomique d&rsquo;un quartier, l&rsquo;activit&eacute; &eacute;conomique accrue peut procurer des gains substantiels pour les individus &agrave; bas revenu, qui profitent aussi de services et de magasins plus vari&eacute;s. En effet, avant d&rsquo;&ecirc;tre gentrifi&eacute;s, les quartiers en d&eacute;clin peuvent &ecirc;tre mal desservis par les commerces, ce qui m&egrave;ne &agrave; des prix plus &eacute;lev&eacute;s pour les biens de premi&egrave;re n&eacute;cessit&eacute;; avec la gentrification, des supermarch&eacute;s offrant des produits &agrave; prix abordables (en plus des boutiques et caf&eacute;s haut de gamme) viennent s&rsquo;installer, ce qui diminue les prix pour les aliments de base(6).<br /> <br /> De plus, ces b&eacute;n&eacute;fices sont durables, dans la mesure o&ugrave; vivre dans des quartiers plus dynamiques augmente les possibilit&eacute;s de grimper dans l&rsquo;&eacute;chelle socio-&eacute;conomique, surtout chez les enfants(7). En d&rsquo;autres termes, en permettant &agrave; des gens de diff&eacute;rents statuts sociaux et origines d&rsquo;interagir davantage, la gentrification fournit une occasion de grimper dans l&rsquo;&eacute;chelle sociale qui r&eacute;duit les in&eacute;galit&eacute;s. La gentrification est ainsi un puissant vecteur de r&eacute;duction de la pauvret&eacute;.<br /> <br /> Ces b&eacute;n&eacute;fices expliquent pourquoi certaines &eacute;tudes observent que la gentrification augmente la probabilit&eacute; que des personnes pauvres <em>demeurent </em>dans un secteur donn&eacute;(8). Les gains d&eacute;coulant d&rsquo;un revenu plus &eacute;lev&eacute;, de logements r&eacute;nov&eacute;s et d&rsquo;un meilleur environnement de quartier encouragent les m&eacute;nages plus pauvres &agrave; y rester dans la mesure o&ugrave; ces gains compensent les co&ucirc;ts d&rsquo;un loyer plus cher.<br /> <br /> <strong>Le r&ocirc;le des politiques publiques</strong><br /> <br /> Malgr&eacute; l&rsquo;attention consid&eacute;rable consacr&eacute;e &agrave; la question du d&eacute;placement des populations par suite de la gentrification d&rsquo;un quartier, on a peu tenu compte du fait que sans ce processus, le d&eacute;sinvestissement et l&rsquo;abandon des logements dans les quartiers pauvres m&egrave;nent &agrave; plus de d&eacute;placements que la gentrification elle-m&ecirc;me(9). D&rsquo;ailleurs, pour que le processus de gentrification s&rsquo;enclenche, un quartier doit d&rsquo;abord avoir connu un exode de plusieurs de ses r&eacute;sidants, ce qui laisse &agrave; ceux qui restent des ressources limit&eacute;es pour am&eacute;liorer leur communaut&eacute;.<br /> <br /> Une demande accrue pour le logement tendra tout de m&ecirc;me &agrave; faire augmenter les prix, ce qui peut pousser certains r&eacute;sidants &agrave; partir. S&rsquo;opposer &agrave; la gentrification et &agrave; ses nombreux avantages dans le but de pr&eacute;venir tout d&eacute;placement ne constitue toutefois pas une solution appropri&eacute;e; la meilleure politique serait de s&rsquo;assurer que ceux qui sont d&eacute;plac&eacute;s ont acc&egrave;s &agrave; des solutions de rechange abordables pour se loger.<br /> <br /> L&rsquo;accessibilit&eacute; au logement dans une agglom&eacute;ration urbaine d&eacute;pend en grande partie des restrictions impos&eacute;es &agrave; l&rsquo;offre de logement sous forme de r&egrave;glements de zonage. Le but des r&egrave;glements de zonage est de restreindre l&rsquo;usage qui est fait des &eacute;difices de m&ecirc;me que leur taille. Lorsque les r&egrave;gles de zonage deviennent trop restrictives, elles limitent l&rsquo;offre de logement. La cons&eacute;quence, soit une diminution importante de l&rsquo;accessibilit&eacute; au logement, est bien document&eacute;e dans la litt&eacute;rature empirique(10) (<a href="/files/image/figure1lepoint1116_fr.jpg" target="_blank">voir Figure 1</a>).<br /> <br /> Le fardeau impos&eacute; par les r&egrave;glements de zonage restrictifs retombe sur les plus pauvres. En plus de r&eacute;duire l&rsquo;offre globale de logement, le zonage peut modifier les types de projets immobiliers mis en &oelig;uvre en alt&eacute;rant leurs co&ucirc;ts relatifs. Cela a g&eacute;n&eacute;ralement pour effet de d&eacute;courager la construction d&rsquo;unit&eacute;s locatives et de favoriser les logements plus luxueux.<br /> <br /> Au lieu de s&rsquo;opposer &agrave; la gentrification, ceux qui sont pr&eacute;occup&eacute;s par le sort des plus pauvres devraient condamner le vandalisme perp&eacute;tr&eacute; sur la propri&eacute;t&eacute; priv&eacute;e de m&ecirc;me que la r&eacute;glementation qui fausse le march&eacute; du logement aux d&eacute;pens des plus vuln&eacute;rables. Un assouplissement des r&egrave;glements de zonage entra&icirc;nerait une baisse des prix du logement(11), ce qui limiterait au minimum les d&eacute;placements de population et fournirait un acc&egrave;s &agrave; des solutions de rechange plus abordables ailleurs dans la ville, permettant ainsi aux b&eacute;n&eacute;fices de la gentrification de se concr&eacute;tiser pleinement.<br /> <br /> <strong>R&eacute;f&eacute;rences</strong><br /> <br /> 1. Veronica Guerrieri, Daniel Hartley et Erik Hurst, &laquo;&nbsp;Endogenous Gentrification and Housing Price Dynamics&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Journal of Public Economics</em>, vol. 100, 2013, p. 45-60.<br /> 2. Dany Foug&egrave;res (dir.), <em>Histoire de Montr&eacute;al et de sa r&eacute;gion, Tome 2 : De 1930 &agrave; nos jours</em>, Presses de l&rsquo;Universit&eacute; Laval, 2012; R&eacute;my Barbonne, &laquo;&nbsp;Gentrification, nouvel urbanisme et &eacute;volution de la mobilit&eacute; quotidienne : vers un d&eacute;veloppement plus durable&nbsp;? Le cas du Plateau Mont-Royal (1998-2003)&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Recherches Sociographiques</em>, vol. 49, no 3, 2008, p. 423-445.<br /> 3. William Coffey, Claude Manzagol et Richard Shearmur, &laquo;&nbsp;L&rsquo;&eacute;volution spatiale de l&rsquo;emploi dans la r&eacute;gion m&eacute;tropolitaine de Montr&eacute;al, 1981-1996&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Cahiers de g&eacute;ographie du Qu&eacute;bec</em>, vol. 44, no 123, 2000, p. 325-339.<br /> 4. Lance Freeman, &laquo;&nbsp;Neighbourhood Diversity, Metropolitan Segregation and Gentrification: What Are the Links in the US?&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Urban Studies</em>, vol. 46, no 10, 2009, p. 2079-2101.<br /> 5. Sanford Ikeda, &laquo;&nbsp;Urban Interventionism and Local Knowledge&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Review of Austrian Economics</em>, vol. 17, nos 2/3, 2004, p. 249.<br /> 6. J. Peter Byrne, &laquo;&nbsp;Two Cheers for Gentrification&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Howard Law Journal</em>, vol. 46, 2003, p. 415-421.<br /> 7. Raj Chetty, Nathaniel Hendren et Lawrence F. Katz, &laquo;&nbsp;The Effects of Exposure to Better Neighborhoods on Children: New Evidence from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment&nbsp;&raquo;,<em> American Economic Review</em>, vol. 106, no 4, 2016, p. 855-902; Greg J. Duncan, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn et Pamela Kato Klebanov, &laquo;&nbsp;Economic Deprivation and Early Childhood Development&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Child Development,</em> vol. 65, no 2, 1994, p. 296-318.<br /> 8. Lance Freeman et Frank Braconi, &laquo;&nbsp;Gentrification and Displacement: New York City in the 1990s&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Journal of the American Planning Association</em>, vol. 70, no 1, 2004, p. 45; Jacob L. Vigdor, &laquo;&nbsp;Does Gentrification Harm the Poor?&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs</em>, 2002, p. 160.<br /> 9. Jacob L. Vigdor, <em>ibid</em>., p. 133-173.<br /> 10. Raven E. Saks, &laquo;&nbsp;Job Creation and Housing Construction: Constraints on Metropolitan Area Employment Growth&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Journal of Urban Economics</em>, vol. 64, no 1, 2008, p. 178-195; John M. Quigley et Steven Raphael, &laquo;&nbsp;Regulation and the High Cost of Housing in California&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>American Economic Review</em>, vol. 95, no 2, 2005, p. 323-328; Edward L. Glaeser et Bryce A. Ward, &laquo;&nbsp;The Causes and Consequences of Land Use Regulation: Evidence from Greater Boston&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Journal of Urban Economics</em>, vol. 65, no 3, 2009, p. 265-278; Christopher J. Mayer et C. Tsuriel Somerville, &laquo;&nbsp;Land Use Regulation and New Construction&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Regional Science and Urban Economics</em>, vol. 30, no 6, 2000, p. 639-662; Edward L. Glaeser, Joseph Gyourko et Raven E. Saks, &laquo;&nbsp;Why Is Manhattan So Expensive? Regulation and the Rise in Housing Prices&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Journal of Law and Economics</em>, vol. 48, no 2, 2005, p. 331-369.<br /> 11. Green, Filipowicz, Lafleur et Herzog ont observ&eacute; que les restrictions de zonage limitent consid&eacute;rablement l&rsquo;offre de logement au Canada, ce qui m&egrave;ne &agrave; des hausses de prix substantielles. Kenneth P. Green <em>et al</em>., <em>The Impact of Land-Use Regulation on Housing Supply in Canada</em>, Institut Fraser, 2016.​</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-snpicture"> <div class="field-label">RS Image:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> /files/image/large-lepoint1116.jpg </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-sn"> <div class="field-label">RS:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> La gentrification est un phénomène largement répandu qui entraîne des résultats bénéfiques pour tout le monde – y compris les plus pauvres de la société – et dont les effets négatifs peuvent être atténués pour de bonnes politiques économiques. </div> </div> </div> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/62594-le-point-les-benefices-considerables-de-la-gentrification" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Thu, 28 Jul 2016 09:00:00 +0000 iedm 62594 at http://www.iedm.org Viewpoint – The Widespread Benefits of Gentrification http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62593 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-subtitle"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Viewpoint describing how gentrification, when combined with sound housing policy, helps everyone, including the poor </div> </div> </div> <p>Gentrification is a process whereby middle-class families and young professionals establish themselves in working-class urban neighbourhoods. By no means unique to Montreal, this process has generated some resistance on the part of anti-gentrification activists, some of whom have resorted to violent means in the belief that they are being displaced. Yet gentrification is a widespread phenomenon that yields largely beneficial outcomes for everyone&mdash;including the poorest members of society&mdash;and whose negative effects can be mitigated by sound economic policy.<br /> </p><div class="field field-type-text field-field-full"> <div class="field-label">Contenu complet:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><strong>This <em>Viewpoint</em> was prepared by Vincent Geloso, Associate Researcher at the MEI, and Jasmin Gu&eacute;nette, Vice President of the MEI. <em>The MEI&rsquo;s Regulation Series seeks to examine the often unintended consequences for individuals and businesses of various laws and rules, in contrast with their stated goals.</em></strong><br /> <br /> Gentrification is a process whereby middle-class families and young professionals establish themselves in working-class urban neighbourhoods. By no means unique to Montreal, this process has generated some resistance on the part of anti-gentrification activists, some of whom have resorted to violent means in the belief that they are being displaced. Yet gentrification is a widespread phenomenon that yields largely beneficial outcomes for everyone&mdash;including the poorest members of society&mdash;and whose negative effects can be mitigated by sound economic policy.<br /> <br /> <strong>A Common and Beneficial Process</strong><br /> <br /> Generally unplanned and emerging at a grassroots level, gentrification is a process that waxes and wanes as the popularity of different neighbourhoods changes.(1) In Montreal, the Plateau Mont-Royal was initially a working-class neighbourhood that took a hit during the Great Depression, but it has since become a middle-class district.(2) Economic activity in Montreal has progressively shifted west, freeing up real estate and opening up gentrification possibilities in eastern parts of the city.(3)<br /> <br /> The positive long-term benefits of gentrification are often associated with an increase in social diversity.(4) There is a growth of social capital, which can be defined as the connections between individuals that enhance knowledge, productivity, and skills.(5) This leads to more employment, more shops and restaurants, and a richer neighbourhood life.<br /> <br /> In addition to reversing the economic decline of an area, increased economic activity can provide substantial income gains for poor individuals, who also benefit from a more diverse set of services and shopping choices. Indeed, before gentrification, areas that are in decline can be plagued by inadequate shopping venues, leading to higher prices for staples; with gentrification, affordable supermarkets often establish themselves (alongside higher-end boutiques and cafes), leading to lower prices for basic foodstuffs.(6)<br /> <br /> Furthermore, the benefits are long-lasting, as exposure to better neighbourhoods increases the likelihood of upward socio-economic mobility, especially among children.(7) In other words, through the intermingling of people of varying social status and background, gentrification provides a social ladder which reduces inequalities. Gentrification is thus a powerful force for reducing poverty.<br /> <br /> These benefits explain why many studies find that gentrification increases the likelihood that poor individuals <em>remain </em>in a given area.(8) The gains from higher incomes, improved housing, and better neighbourhood conditions encourage poorer households to stay where they are insofar as these offset the cost of higher rents.<br /> <br /> <strong>The Role of Government Policy</strong><br /> <br /> Despite the large amount of attention paid to the issue of displacement in the wake of gentrification, little consideration has been given to the fact that without this process, continued disinvestment and housing abandonment in poor neighbourhoods lead to more displacement than gentrification does.(9) Indeed, for gentrification to occur, a neighbourhood must have first endured an exodus of many of its residents, which left the remaining residents with limited resources to improve their community.<br /> <br /> Nonetheless, an increase in demand for housing will tend to raise prices, which may lead some poorer residents to leave. Opposing gentrification and its widespread benefits in the name of preventing any displacement is not a sound policy course, however; the best policy would make sure that those displaced have access to inexpensive housing alternatives.<br /> <br /> The affordability of housing in an urban area depends to a large extent on restrictions on the supply of housing, which take the form of zoning laws. The aim of zoning is to limit how buildings are used, as well as their scale. If zoning regulations become too restrictive, they limit the supply of real estate. The consequences in such a case are well documented in the empirical literature: a dramatic decrease in housing affordability(10) (<a href="/files/image/figure1lepoint1116_en.jpg" target="_blank">see Figure 1</a>).<br /> <br /> The burden of costs imposed by restrictive zoning is shouldered by the poorest members of society. On top of reducing the overall supply of housing, zoning may also alter the types of development projects undertaken by altering their relative costs. In general, this has discouraged the construction of rental units and favoured higher-end housing.<br /> <br /> Instead of opposing gentrification, those who are concerned about the plight of the poor should condemn the vandalizing of private property, as well as the distortionary regulations that harm the most vulnerable. Easing land-use regulations would lower housing prices,(11) which would largely limit displacements and provide access to more affordable alternatives elsewhere in the city, thus allowing the full benefits of gentrification to materialize.<br /> <br /> <strong>References</strong><br /> <br /> 1. Veronica Guerrieri, Daniel Hartley, and Erik Hurst, &ldquo;Endogenous Gentrification and Housing Price Dynamics,&rdquo; <em>Journal of Public Economics</em>, Vol. 100, 2013, pp. 45-60.<br /> 2. Dany Foug&egrave;res (ed.), <em>Histoire de Montr&eacute;al et de sa r&eacute;gion, Tome 2: De 1930 &agrave; nos jours</em>, Presses de l&rsquo;Universit&eacute; Laval, 2012; R&eacute;my Barbonne, &ldquo;Gentrification, nouvel urbanisme et &eacute;volution de la mobilit&eacute; quotidienne : vers un d&eacute;veloppement plus durable ? Le cas du Plateau Mont-Royal (1998-2003),&rdquo; <em>Recherches Sociographiques</em>, Vol. 49, No. 3, 2008, pp.&nbsp;423-445.<br /> 3. William Coffey, Claude Manzagol, and Richard Shearmur, &ldquo;L&rsquo;&eacute;volution spatiale de l&rsquo;emploi dans la r&eacute;gion m&eacute;tropolitaine de Montr&eacute;al, 1981-1996,&rdquo; <em>Cahiers de g&eacute;ographie du Qu&eacute;bec</em>, Vol. 44, No. 123, 2000, pp. 325-339.<br /> 4. Lance Freeman, &ldquo;Neighbourhood Diversity, Metropolitan Segregation and Gentrification: What Are the Links in the US?&rdquo; <em>Urban Studies</em>, Vol. 46, No. 10, 2009, pp. 2079-2101.<br /> 5. Sanford Ikeda, &ldquo;Urban Interventionism and Local Knowledge,&rdquo; <em>Review of Austrian Economics</em>, Vol. 17, Nos. 2/3, 2004, p. 249.<br /> 6. J. Peter Byrne, &ldquo;Two Cheers for Gentrification,&rdquo; <em>Howard Law Journal</em>, Vol. 46, 2003, pp.&nbsp;415-421.<br /> 7. Raj Chetty, Nathaniel Hendren, and Lawrence F. Katz, &ldquo;The Effects of Exposure to Better Neighborhoods on Children: New Evidence from the Moving to Opportunity Experiment,&rdquo; <em>American Economic Review</em>, Vol. 106, No. 4, 2016, pp. 855-902; Greg J. Duncan, Jeanne Brooks-Gunn, and Pamela Kato Klebanov, &ldquo;Economic Deprivation and Early Childhood Development,&rdquo; <em>Child Development</em>, Vol. 65, No. 2, 1994, pp. 296-318.<br /> 8. Lance Freeman and Frank Braconi, &ldquo;Gentrification and Displacement: New York City in the 1990s,&rdquo; <em>Journal of the American Planning Association</em>, Vol. 70, No. 1, 2004, p. 45; Jacob L. Vigdor, &ldquo;Does Gentrification Harm the Poor?&rdquo; <em>Brookings-Wharton Papers on Urban Affairs</em>, 2002, p. 160.<br /> 9. Jacob L. Vigdor, <em>ibid</em>., pp. 133-173.<br /> 10. Raven E. Saks, &ldquo;Job Creation and Housing Construction: Constraints on Metropolitan Area Employment Growth,&rdquo; <em>Journal of Urban Economics</em>, Vol. 64, No. 1, 2008, pp. 178-195; John M. Quigley and Steven Raphael, &ldquo;Regulation and the High Cost of Housing in California,&rdquo; <em>American Economic Review</em>, Vol. 95, No. 2, 2005, pp. 323-328; Edward L. Glaeser and Bryce A. Ward, &ldquo;The Causes and Consequences of Land Use Regulation: Evidence from Greater Boston,&rdquo; <em>Journal of Urban Economics</em>, Vol. 65, No. 3, 2009, pp. 265-278; Christopher J. Mayer and C. Tsuriel Somerville, &ldquo;Land Use Regulation and New Construction,&rdquo; <em>Regional Science and Urban Economics</em>, Vol. 30, No. 6, 2000, pp. 639-662; Edward L. Glaeser, Joseph Gyourko, and Raven E. Saks, &ldquo;Why Is Manhattan So Expensive? Regulation and the Rise in Housing Prices,&rdquo; <em>Journal of Law and Economics</em>, Vol. 48, No. 2, 2005, pp.&nbsp;331-369.<br /> 11. Green, Filipowicz, Lafleur, and Herzog found that land-use restrictions substantially limited the supply of housing in Canada, leading to considerable price increases. Kenneth P. Green <em>et al</em>., <em>The Impact of Land-Use Regulation on Housing Supply in Canada</em>, Fraser Institute, 2016.​</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-snpicture"> <div class="field-label">RS Image:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> /files/image/large-lepoint1116.jpg </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-sn"> <div class="field-label">RS:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Gentrification is a widespread phenomenon that yields largely beneficial outcomes for everyone—including the poorest members of society—and whose negative effects can be mitigated by sound economic policy. </div> </div> </div> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62593" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Thu, 28 Jul 2016 09:00:00 +0000 iedm 62593 at http://www.iedm.org La gentrification est un phénomène souhaitable qui profite aussi aux plus pauvres http://www.iedm.org/fr/62592-la-gentrification-est-un-phenomene-souhaitable-qui-profite-aussi-aux-plus-pauvres <p><strong>Montr&eacute;al le 28 juillet 2016 &ndash; </strong>Alors que des actes violents de la part de militants antigentrification continuent de se produire dans certains quartiers de Montr&eacute;al comme Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, l&rsquo;IEDM montre dans une nouvelle publication que la gentrification est un ph&eacute;nom&egrave;ne normal qui entra&icirc;ne des r&eacute;sultats b&eacute;n&eacute;fiques pour tout le monde, y compris les plus pauvres de la soci&eacute;t&eacute;.<br /> </p><div class="field field-type-text field-field-sn"> <div class="field-label">RS:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Alors que des actes violents de la part de militants antigentrification continuent de se produire dans certains quartiers de Montréal comme Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, l’IEDM montre dans une nouvelle publication que la gentrification est un phénomène normal qui entraîne des résultats bénéfiques pour tout le monde, y compris les plus pauvres de la société. </div> </div> </div> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/62592-la-gentrification-est-un-phenomene-souhaitable-qui-profite-aussi-aux-plus-pauvres" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Thu, 28 Jul 2016 09:00:00 +0000 iedm 62592 at http://www.iedm.org Gentrification is a positive phenomenon that also benefits the poor http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62591 <p><strong>Montreal, July 28, 2016 &ndash; </strong>While acts of violence on the part of anti-gentrification activists continue to occur in certain Montreal neighbourhoods like Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, the MEI shows in a new publication that gentrification is a normal phenomenon that entails beneficial effects for everyone, including the poorest members of society.<br /> </p><div class="field field-type-text field-field-sn"> <div class="field-label">RS:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> While acts of violence on the part of anti-gentrification activists continue to occur in certain Montreal neighbourhoods like Hochelaga-Maisonneuve, the MEI shows in a new publication that gentrification is a normal phenomenon that entails beneficial effects for everyone, including the poorest members of society. </div> </div> </div> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62591" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Thu, 28 Jul 2016 09:00:00 +0000 iedm 62591 at http://www.iedm.org Le surplus budgétaire du Québec : une opportunité pour baisser les taxes, pas pour dépenser plus http://www.iedm.org/fr/62588-le-surplus-budgetaire-du-quebec-une-opportunite-pour-baisser-les-taxes <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.iedm.org, p. web </div> </div> </div> <p>Le Qu&eacute;bec poss&egrave;de maintenant un exc&eacute;dent budg&eacute;taire.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/62588-le-surplus-budgetaire-du-quebec-une-opportunite-pour-baisser-les-taxes" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Tue, 26 Jul 2016 15:17:19 +0000 iedm 62588 at http://www.iedm.org Le surplus budgétaire du Québec : une opportunité pour baisser les taxes, pas pour dépenser plus http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62587 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.iedm.org, p. web </div> </div> </div> <p>Quebec now has a budget surplus.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62587" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Tue, 26 Jul 2016 15:16:06 +0000 iedm 62587 at http://www.iedm.org Android Smartphones Cannot Possibly Undermine Competition http://www.iedm.org/fr/62580-android-smartphones-cannot-possibly-undermine-competition <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.huffingtonpost.ca/mathieu-bedard, p. web </div> </div> </div> <p>Le syst&egrave;me d&#39;exploitation Android pour smartphones de Google est sous enqu&ecirc;te.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/62580-android-smartphones-cannot-possibly-undermine-competition" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Mon, 25 Jul 2016 20:42:58 +0000 iedm 62580 at http://www.iedm.org Android Smartphones Cannot Possibly Undermine Competition http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62579 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.huffingtonpost.ca/mathieu-bedard, p. web </div> </div> </div> <p>Google&#39;s Android operating system for smartphones under investigation.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62579" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Mon, 25 Jul 2016 20:42:08 +0000 iedm 62579 at http://www.iedm.org Entretien des C Series aux États-Unis : enfin des décisions d’affaires! http://www.iedm.org/fr/62574-entretien-des-c-series-aux-etats-unis-enfin-des-decisions-d-affaires <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <p>La maintenance des appareils C Series acquis par Air Canada sera faite aux &Eacute;tats-Unis.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/62574-entretien-des-c-series-aux-etats-unis-enfin-des-decisions-d-affaires" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Mon, 25 Jul 2016 20:23:31 +0000 iedm 62574 at http://www.iedm.org Entretien des C Series aux États-Unis : enfin des décisions d’affaires! http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62573 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <p>The maintenance of Air Canada&#39;s C Series will be made in the United States.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62573" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Mon, 25 Jul 2016 20:22:22 +0000 iedm 62573 at http://www.iedm.org Landing the right reform for air travel http://www.iedm.org/fr/62540-landing-the-right-reform-for-air-travel <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Toronto Sun, p. 17 </div> </div> </div> <p>L&#39;impact des mauvaises politiques publiques sur les a&eacute;roports et les compagnies a&eacute;riennes.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/62540-landing-the-right-reform-for-air-travel" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Sat, 23 Jul 2016 19:23:47 +0000 iedm 62540 at http://www.iedm.org Landing the right reform for air travel http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62539 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Toronto Sun, p. 17 </div> </div> </div> <p>Air travel is stifled in Canada due to poor public policy with regard to airports and airlines.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62539" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Sat, 23 Jul 2016 19:23:47 +0000 iedm 62539 at http://www.iedm.org Province has tossed out a tried and tested recipe for success http://www.iedm.org/fr/62535-province-has-tossed-out-a-tried-and-tested-recipe-for-success <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Calgary Herald, p. A12 </div> </div> </div> <p>Les d&eacute;ficits ont eu raison de l&#39;avantage albertain.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/62535-province-has-tossed-out-a-tried-and-tested-recipe-for-success" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Sat, 23 Jul 2016 17:23:40 +0000 iedm 62535 at http://www.iedm.org Province has tossed out a tried and tested recipe for success http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62534 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Calgary Herald, p. A12 </div> </div> </div> <p>Deficits have eroded Alberta&#39;s advantage.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62534" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Sat, 23 Jul 2016 17:23:40 +0000 iedm 62534 at http://www.iedm.org À la recherche du général Tao http://www.iedm.org/fr/62455-a-la-recherche-du-general-tao <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <p>Les bienfaits de l&rsquo;&eacute;conomie de march&eacute; et du libre-&eacute;change.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/62455-a-la-recherche-du-general-tao" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 22 Jul 2016 16:36:27 +0000 iedm 62455 at http://www.iedm.org À la recherche du général Tao http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62454 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <p>The benefits of the market economy and free trade.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62454" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 22 Jul 2016 16:35:08 +0000 iedm 62454 at http://www.iedm.org Walmart sans Visa prouve que la concurrence se porte bien http://www.iedm.org/fr/62442-walmart-sans-visa-prouve-que-la-concurrence-se-porte-bien <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <p>L&#39;&eacute;tat de la concurrence sur les march&eacute;s de cartes de cr&eacute;dit.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/62442-walmart-sans-visa-prouve-que-la-concurrence-se-porte-bien" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Wed, 20 Jul 2016 16:31:25 +0000 iedm 62442 at http://www.iedm.org Walmart sans Visa prouve que la concurrence se porte bien http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62441 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <p>The state of competition in credit-card markets.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62441" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Wed, 20 Jul 2016 16:29:44 +0000 iedm 62441 at http://www.iedm.org Quebec Budget Surplus: Time To Lower Taxes, Not Spend More http://www.iedm.org/fr/62436-quebec-budget-surplus-time-to-lower-taxes-not-spend-more <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.huffingtonpost.ca/jasmin-guenette, p. web </div> </div> </div> <p>Le Qu&eacute;bec poss&egrave;de maintenant un exc&eacute;dent budg&eacute;taire.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/62436-quebec-budget-surplus-time-to-lower-taxes-not-spend-more" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Tue, 19 Jul 2016 20:38:42 +0000 iedm 62436 at http://www.iedm.org