http://www.iedm.org/fr/rss fr Piketty ou l'illusion des inégalités http://www.iedm.org/fr/49567-piketty-ou-l-illusion-des-in-galit-s <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Le Devoir, p. A08 </div> </div> </div> <p>La compr&eacute;hension de base de l&rsquo;&eacute;conomie de Piketti.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/49567-piketty-ou-l-illusion-des-in-galit-s" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 18 Jul 2014 14:01:56 +0000 iedm 49567 at http://www.iedm.org Piketty ou l'illusion des inégalités http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49566 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Le Devoir, p. A08 </div> </div> </div> <p>Piketti&#39;s basic understanding of the economy.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49566" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 18 Jul 2014 13:59:57 +0000 iedm 49566 at http://www.iedm.org What are we getting ourselves into with cap and trade? http://www.iedm.org/fr/49563-what-are-we-getting-ourselves-into-with-cap-and-trade- <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> The Gazette, p. A15 </div> </div> </div> <p>Le march&eacute; du carbone form&eacute; par le Qu&eacute;bec et la Californie.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/49563-what-are-we-getting-ourselves-into-with-cap-and-trade-" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 18 Jul 2014 13:47:18 +0000 iedm 49563 at http://www.iedm.org What are we getting ourselves into with cap and trade? http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49562 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> The Gazette, p. A15 </div> </div> </div> <p>The carbon market formed by Quebec and California.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49562" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 18 Jul 2014 13:46:04 +0000 iedm 49562 at http://www.iedm.org Ces lois idiotes vite contournées http://www.iedm.org/fr/49543-ces-lois-idiotes-vite-contourn-es <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.blogues.journaldemontreal.com/iedm, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <p>La France passe une Loi Anti-Amazon.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/49543-ces-lois-idiotes-vite-contourn-es" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 11 Jul 2014 12:09:03 +0000 iedm 49543 at http://www.iedm.org Ces lois idiotes vite contournées http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49542 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.blogues.journaldemontreal.com/iedm, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <p>France&#39;s &#39;anti-Amazon&#39; law.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49542" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 11 Jul 2014 12:02:01 +0000 iedm 49542 at http://www.iedm.org Would Politicians Make Good Goalkeepers? http://www.iedm.org/fr/49538-would-politicians-make-good-goalkeepers- <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.huffingtonpost.ca/yanick-labrie, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <p>Les professions qui pr&eacute;sentent un parti pris en faveur de l&#39;action.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/49538-would-politicians-make-good-goalkeepers-" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Wed, 09 Jul 2014 10:52:35 +0000 iedm 49538 at http://www.iedm.org Would Politicians Make Good Goalkeepers? http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49536 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.huffingtonpost.ca/yanick-labrie, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <p>Professions that exhibit action bias.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49536" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Wed, 09 Jul 2014 10:41:19 +0000 iedm 49536 at http://www.iedm.org Nouvelle enchère de spectre au Canada : le gouvernement essaie de résoudre un problème non existant, selon des chercheurs de l’IEDM http://www.iedm.org/fr/49464-nouvelle-ench-re-de-spectre-au-canada-le-gouvernement-essaie-de-r-soudre-un-probl-me-non-existant-selon-des-chercheurs-de- <p><strong>Montr&eacute;al, lundi le 7 juillet 2014 &ndash; </strong>La derni&egrave;re tentative du gouvernement canadien d&rsquo;encourager le d&eacute;ploiement d&rsquo;un quatri&egrave;me fournisseur national de services sans fil est malavis&eacute;e et se fonde sur une analyse erron&eacute;e de la situation, selon les auteurs de l&rsquo;&eacute;tude &laquo; L&rsquo;&eacute;tat de la concurrence dans l&rsquo;industrie des t&eacute;l&eacute;communications au Canada &ndash; 2014 &raquo;.<br /> </p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/49464-nouvelle-ench-re-de-spectre-au-canada-le-gouvernement-essaie-de-r-soudre-un-probl-me-non-existant-selon-des-chercheurs-de-" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Mon, 07 Jul 2014 19:30:43 +0000 iedm 49464 at http://www.iedm.org New spectrum auction in Canada: Government is trying to solve a nonexistent problem, say MEI authors http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49463 <p><strong>Montreal, Monday July 7, 2014 &ndash; </strong>The latest attempt by the Canadian government to encourage the deployment of a fourth national wireless player is wrongheaded and based on a faulty analysis of the situation, according to the authors of the paper &ldquo;The State of Competition in Canada&rsquo;s Telecommunications Industry &ndash; 2014.&rdquo;<br /> <br /> The minister of Industry, James Moore, announced this morning that a new spectrum auction will take place in the next few months with 60% of the frequencies set aside for new players.<br /> </p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49463" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Mon, 07 Jul 2014 19:27:57 +0000 iedm 49463 at http://www.iedm.org Marché du carbone : le Québec bon premier aux dépens des consommateurs http://www.iedm.org/fr/49413-march-du-carbone-le-qu-bec-bon-premier-aux-d-pens-des-consommateurs <p><strong>Montr&eacute;al, le vendredi 4 juillet 2014 &ndash;</strong> Le 1er janvier 2015 entrera officiellement en vigueur la <em>Western Climate Initiative</em>, le march&eacute; du carbone form&eacute; par le Qu&eacute;bec et la Californie. En raison de cette nouvelle taxe, le prix du litre d&rsquo;essence augmentera d&rsquo;environ 3&cent;. Cela touchera de plein fouet nos portefeuilles et notre &eacute;conomie.<br /> </p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/49413-march-du-carbone-le-qu-bec-bon-premier-aux-d-pens-des-consommateurs" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 04 Jul 2014 14:19:41 +0000 iedm 49413 at http://www.iedm.org Cap and trade: Quebec leads the way, at the expense of consumers http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49412 <p><strong>Montreal, Friday, July 4th, 2014 &ndash; </strong>On January 1st, 2015, the <em>Western Climate Initiative</em>, the carbon market formed by Quebec and California, will officially come into effect. As a result of this new tax, the price of gasoline will increase by some 3&cent; a litre. This will deal a direct blow to our wallets and to the Quebec economy.<br /> </p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49412" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 04 Jul 2014 14:17:27 +0000 iedm 49412 at http://www.iedm.org The Fight Against Cancer Just Took an Innovative Turn http://www.iedm.org/fr/49461-the-fight-against-cancer-just-took-an-innovative-turn <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.huffingtonpost.ca/yanick-labrie, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <p>Les contributions de la recherche pharmaceutique et l&#39;am&eacute;lioration des conditions de sant&eacute;.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/49461-the-fight-against-cancer-just-took-an-innovative-turn" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 04 Jul 2014 12:09:08 +0000 iedm 49461 at http://www.iedm.org The Fight Against Cancer Just Took an Innovative Turn http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49460 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.huffingtonpost.ca/yanick-labrie, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <p>Pharmaceutical research and the betterment of health conditions.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49460" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 04 Jul 2014 12:09:08 +0000 iedm 49460 at http://www.iedm.org Bourse du carbone: dans quelle galère embarquons-nous? http://www.iedm.org/fr/49403-bourse-du-carbone-dans-quelle-gal-re-embarquons-nous- <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Le Journal de Montréal, p. 28 </div> </div> </div> <p>Le march&eacute; du carbone form&eacute; par le Qu&eacute;bec et la Californie.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/49403-bourse-du-carbone-dans-quelle-gal-re-embarquons-nous-" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 04 Jul 2014 11:12:16 +0000 iedm 49403 at http://www.iedm.org Bourse du carbone: dans quelle galère embarquons-nous? http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49402 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Le Journal de Montréal, p. 28 </div> </div> </div> <p>The carbon market formed by Quebec and California.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49402" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 04 Jul 2014 11:10:54 +0000 iedm 49402 at http://www.iedm.org Sables bitumineux albertains - Huston, nous avons un problème! http://www.iedm.org/fr/49379-sables-bitumineux-albertains-huston-nous-avons-un-probleme <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Le Devoir, p. B5 </div> </div> </div> <p>L&#39;industrie p&eacute;troli&egrave;re et l&#39;environnement.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/49379-sables-bitumineux-albertains-huston-nous-avons-un-probleme" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Sat, 21 Jun 2014 14:58:01 +0000 iedm 49379 at http://www.iedm.org Sables bitumineux albertains - Huston, nous avons un problème! http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49376 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Le Devoir, p. B5 </div> </div> </div> <p>The oil industry and the environment.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49376" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Sat, 21 Jun 2014 14:58:01 +0000 iedm 49376 at http://www.iedm.org Les efforts portent leurs fruits http://www.iedm.org/fr/49370-les-efforts-portent-leurs-fruits <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Métro, p. 23 </div> </div> </div> <p>La recherche pharmaceutique et l&#39;am&eacute;lioration des conditions de sant&eacute;.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/49370-les-efforts-portent-leurs-fruits" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 20 Jun 2014 20:44:08 +0000 iedm 49370 at http://www.iedm.org Les efforts portent leurs fruits http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49369 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Métro, p. 23 </div> </div> </div> <p>Pharmaceutical research and the betterment of health conditions.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49369" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 20 Jun 2014 20:42:47 +0000 iedm 49369 at http://www.iedm.org Pharmaceutical innovation and the treatments we could no longer do without http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49314 <p><strong>Montreal, Wednesday, June 18, 2014 &ndash;</strong> At an important conference in Chicago a few weeks ago, over 25,000 doctors and researchers from around the world gathered to hear about several new breakthroughs in targeted therapies like immunotherapy that will play a leading role in the fight against cancer. This is a promising new sector in the field of pharmacology, but this kind of innovation has been going on for some time, as highlighted in a new <em>Economic Note</em> published today by the Montreal Economic Institute.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49314" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Wed, 18 Jun 2014 09:00:00 +0000 iedm 49314 at http://www.iedm.org L’innovation pharmaceutique et les traitements dont on ne pourrait plus se passer http://www.iedm.org/fr/49313-l-innovation-pharmaceutique-et-les-traitements-dont-on-ne-pourrait-plus-se-passer <p><strong>Montr&eacute;al, le mercredi 18 juin 2014 &ndash;</strong> R&eacute;unis lors d&rsquo;une importante conf&eacute;rence &agrave; Chicago il y a quelques semaines, plus de 25 000 m&eacute;decins et chercheurs du monde entier ont pu assister au d&eacute;voilement de plusieurs nouvelles perc&eacute;es dans les th&eacute;rapies cibl&eacute;es qui occuperont une place de premier plan dans la lutte contre le cancer, notamment l&rsquo;immunoth&eacute;rapie.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/49313-l-innovation-pharmaceutique-et-les-traitements-dont-on-ne-pourrait-plus-se-passer" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Wed, 18 Jun 2014 09:00:00 +0000 iedm 49313 at http://www.iedm.org Comment l'innovation pharmaceutique a révolutionné le domaine de la santé http://www.iedm.org/fr/49312-comment-l-innovation-pharmaceutique-a-revolutionne-le-domaine-de-la-sante <div class="field field-type-text field-field-subtitle"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Note économique décrivant quelques-unes des plus importantes contributions de la recherche pharmaceutique à l'amélioration des conditions de santé au cours du dernier siècle </div> </div> </div> <p>Jamais au cours de l&#39;histoire de l&#39;humanit&eacute; n&#39;a-t-on vu une progression aussi rapide de la long&eacute;vit&eacute; que durant le 20e si&egrave;cle. Dans les pays d&eacute;velopp&eacute;s, l&#39;esp&eacute;rance de vie &agrave; la naissance est pass&eacute;e en moyenne d&#39;environ 50 ans en 1900 &agrave; un peu plus de 80 ans aujourd&#39;hui. Un nombre croissant de personnes ont d&eacute;sormais la chance de vivre non seulement plus longtemps mais aussi en meilleure sant&eacute; qu&#39;autrefois.</p><div class="field field-type-text field-field-full"> <div class="field-label">Contenu complet:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><strong>Cette <em>Note &eacute;conomique</em> a &eacute;t&eacute; pr&eacute;par&eacute;e par Yanick Labrie, &eacute;conomiste &agrave;&nbsp;l&rsquo;Institut &eacute;conomique de Montr&eacute;al et titulaire d&rsquo;une ma&icirc;trise en sciences &eacute;conomiques de l&rsquo;Universit&eacute; de Montr&eacute;al.</strong><br /> <br /> Jamais au cours de l&rsquo;histoire de l&rsquo;humanit&eacute; n&rsquo;a-t-on vu une progression aussi rapide de la long&eacute;vit&eacute; que durant le 20e si&egrave;cle. Dans les pays d&eacute;velopp&eacute;s, l&rsquo;esp&eacute;rance de vie &agrave; la naissance est pass&eacute;e en moyenne d&rsquo;environ 50&nbsp;ans en 1900 &agrave; un peu&nbsp;plus de 80 ans aujourd&rsquo;hui(1). Un nombre croissant de personnes ont d&eacute;sormais la chance de vivre non seulement plus longtemps mais aussi en meilleure sant&eacute; qu&rsquo;autrefois. En effet, des gains importants au chapitre de la long&eacute;vit&eacute; sans incapacit&eacute; s&rsquo;observent depuis quelques d&eacute;cennies dans plusieurs pays(2).<br /> <br /> Les causes de ces progr&egrave;s sont complexes et vari&eacute;es. Certes, l&rsquo;am&eacute;lioration des conditions d&rsquo;hygi&egrave;ne, le d&eacute;veloppement de syst&egrave;mes d&rsquo;assainissement des eaux, le changement des habitudes alimentaires, de m&ecirc;me que l&rsquo;enrichissement de la population ont tous contribu&eacute; &agrave; r&eacute;duire la mortalit&eacute; et &agrave; am&eacute;liorer sensiblement les conditions de sant&eacute;.<br /> <br /> La m&eacute;decine a &eacute;galement fait d&rsquo;immenses progr&egrave;s au cours du dernier si&egrave;cle. L&rsquo;&eacute;volution des connaissances biom&eacute;dicales a donn&eacute; naissance &agrave; une nouvelle branche de la m&eacute;decine, la pharmacologie. La d&eacute;couverte de nouveaux m&eacute;dicaments et vaccins a permis de traiter de fa&ccedil;on plus efficace, voire m&ecirc;me de gu&eacute;rir plusieurs maladies longtemps jug&eacute;es incurables. Cette <em>Note &eacute;conomique</em> retrace quelques-unes des plus importantes contributions du domaine pharmaceutique ayant marqu&eacute; le dernier si&egrave;cle.<br /> <br /> <strong>L&rsquo;&eacute;limination de nombreuses maladies infectieuses</strong><br /> <br /> Il serait difficile de trouver une innovation dans le domaine de la sant&eacute; qui a permis de sauver plus de vies que les vaccins(3). Avant l&rsquo;immunisation de masse, les populations vivaient en permanence sous la menace d&rsquo;&eacute;pid&eacute;mies de diverses maladies infectieuses.<br /> <br /> Au d&eacute;but du si&egrave;cle pass&eacute;, les principales causes de d&eacute;c&egrave;s provenaient de maladies telles que la tuberculose, la pneumonie, la variole, la dipht&eacute;rie, la polio, la grippe et la bronchite. La polio, par exemple, a entrain&eacute; la paralysie, l&rsquo;invalidit&eacute;, voire le d&eacute;c&egrave;s de milliers de Canadiens durant la premi&egrave;re moiti&eacute; du 20e si&egrave;cle(4). Apr&egrave;s l&rsquo;arriv&eacute;e du vaccin en 1955, les cas de polio ont chut&eacute; de fa&ccedil;on importante en quelques ann&eacute;es et la maladie a par la suite &eacute;t&eacute; &eacute;radiqu&eacute;e (voir Tableau 1 sur iedm.org), non seulement au Canada mais aussi dans la plupart des r&eacute;gions du monde.<br /> <br /> Les m&eacute;dicaments appartenant &agrave; la classe des sulfamides d&eacute;couverts dans les ann&eacute;es 1930, de m&ecirc;me que les premiers antibiotiques comme la p&eacute;nicilline dans les ann&eacute;es 1940, ont &eacute;galement permis de diminuer fortement le nombre de d&eacute;c&egrave;s attribuables aux maladies infectieuses, &agrave; commencer par la pneumonie et la scarlatine(5). Au Canada, le taux de mortalit&eacute; li&eacute;e aux principales maladies transmissibles a chut&eacute; de plus de 80 % entre le d&eacute;but des ann&eacute;es 1920 et 1960(6).<br /> <br /> Certes, des maladies transmissibles peuvent appara&icirc;tre de fa&ccedil;on soudaine et se r&eacute;pandre rapidement(7). L&rsquo;&eacute;pid&eacute;mie du virus du sida au d&eacute;but des ann&eacute;es 1980 en est l&rsquo;exemple parfait.<br /> <br /> N&eacute;anmoins, des chercheurs ont estim&eacute; que la combinaison de traitements antir&eacute;troviraux (trith&eacute;rapie) pour soigner les patients porteurs du VIH/sida a permis de sauver l&rsquo;&eacute;quivalent de 3&nbsp;millions d&rsquo;ann&eacute;es de vie entre 1989 et 2003 aux &Eacute;tats-Unis(8). Seulement dans les trois ann&eacute;es suivant l&rsquo;introduction du m&eacute;dicament novateur Epivir en 1995, le taux de mortalit&eacute; a chut&eacute; de 70 %(9). Gr&acirc;ce &agrave; ces avanc&eacute;es th&eacute;rapeutiques, un jeune adulte de 20 ans porteur du VIH/sida au Canada et aux &Eacute;tats-Unis peut aujourd&rsquo;hui esp&eacute;rer vivre au-del&agrave; de 70 ans, soit presque aussi longtemps que le reste de la population(10).<br /> <br /> <strong>La pr&eacute;vention et le traitement des maladies cardiovasculaires</strong><br /> <br /> Dans la premi&egrave;re moiti&eacute; du 20e si&egrave;cle, le repos au lit constituait le traitement standard pour les personnes souffrant de maladies cardiaques(11). Aujourd&rsquo;hui, plusieurs options de traitement sont disponibles et permettent de sauver des vies, en plus de maintenir ces personnes actives.<br /> <br /> Des m&eacute;dicaments comme l&rsquo;aspirine aident &agrave; dissoudre les caillots et &agrave; r&eacute;tablir le flux sanguin vers le c&oelig;ur. Des b&eacute;tabloquants, d&eacute;velopp&eacute;s &agrave; partir des ann&eacute;es 1960, peuvent &ecirc;tre prescrits pour r&eacute;duire la pression art&eacute;rielle et par le fait m&ecirc;me la charge de travail du c&oelig;ur. Des m&eacute;dicaments de la classe des statines comme le Lipitor, qui sont apparus depuis la fin des ann&eacute;es 1980, contribuent pour leur part &agrave; abaisser le niveau de cholest&eacute;rol dans les art&egrave;res.<br /> <br /> Dans des cas graves comme les crises cardiaques et les accidents vasculaires c&eacute;r&eacute;braux, les patients sont trait&eacute;s avec des m&eacute;dicaments thrombolytiques qui, lorsqu&rsquo;administr&eacute;s rapidement, parviennent &agrave; &eacute;viter ou &agrave; limiter fortement les dommages &agrave; long terme(12).<br /> <br /> Tous ces m&eacute;dicaments ont permis de r&eacute;duire significativement la mortalit&eacute; et la morbidit&eacute; chez les patients, comme le confirment de nombreuses &eacute;tudes(13). Depuis 1970, le taux de mortalit&eacute; r&eacute;sultant de maladies du c&oelig;ur a diminu&eacute; de pr&egrave;s de moiti&eacute; aux &Eacute;tats-Unis (voir Figure 1 sur iedm.org) et une tendance similaire s&rsquo;observe dans l&rsquo;ensemble des pays industrialis&eacute;s(14).<br /> <br /> <strong>Des efforts accrus pour vaincre le cancer</strong><br /> <br /> Avant les ann&eacute;es 1950, le traitement du cancer &eacute;tait essentiellement laiss&eacute; entre les mains du chirurgien et l&rsquo;espoir de survivre &agrave; plus long terme &agrave; un cancer &eacute;tait &agrave; peu pr&egrave;s nul. Comme l&rsquo;a document&eacute; l&rsquo;historien et oncologue Siddhartha Mukherjee dans son &oelig;uvre qui lui a valu le prix Pulitzer, l&rsquo;av&egrave;nement de la chimioth&eacute;rapie et les progr&egrave;s pharmacologiques qui se sont poursuivis au cours de la derni&egrave;re moiti&eacute; du 20e si&egrave;cle ont progressivement men&eacute; &agrave; des gains importants dans la lutte pour vaincre le cancer(15).<br /> <br /> Les m&eacute;dicaments contre le cancer sont maintenant ceux qui attirent le plus l&rsquo;attention des compagnies pharmaceutiques. Le nombre de m&eacute;dicaments oncologiques novateurs d&eacute;velopp&eacute;s entre 1990 et 2009 a &eacute;t&eacute; pr&egrave;s de trois fois sup&eacute;rieur au nombre lanc&eacute; entre 1970 et 1989(16). En quelques ann&eacute;es, on est pass&eacute; d&rsquo;une initiative modeste principalement financ&eacute;e par les fonds publics &agrave; une v&eacute;ritable armada impliquant des milliers d&rsquo;entreprises et des centaines de milliards de dollars d&rsquo;investissements priv&eacute;s(17).<br /> <br /> Les efforts commencent &agrave; porter fruit. Depuis le d&eacute;but des ann&eacute;es 1990, le taux de mortalit&eacute; du cancer, ajust&eacute; selon l&rsquo;&acirc;ge, est en baisse dans les pays d&eacute;velopp&eacute;s(18) et dans une grande partie du reste du monde. L&rsquo;&eacute;conomiste Frank Lichtenberg de l&rsquo;Universit&eacute; Columbia s&rsquo;est r&eacute;cemment pench&eacute; sur la relation qui existe entre l&rsquo;innovation pharmaceutique et les taux de mortalit&eacute; pour environ 60 types de cancers. Pour la p&eacute;riode 1990-2009, il a constat&eacute; que l&rsquo;usage de nouveaux m&eacute;dicaments &eacute;tait responsable de pr&egrave;s de 60&nbsp;% de la baisse observ&eacute;e des taux de mortalit&eacute; li&eacute;e au cancer(19).<br /> <br /> Les avanc&eacute;es les plus remarquables ont sans doute &eacute;t&eacute; r&eacute;alis&eacute;es au chapitre des cancers affectant les enfants. Depuis le d&eacute;but des ann&eacute;es 1970, les taux de mortalit&eacute; pour ces types de cancer ont diminu&eacute; en moyenne de 3 % par ann&eacute;e au Canada, aux &Eacute;tats-Unis, en Australie et au Japon, et ce, en bonne partie gr&acirc;ce aux traitements pharmacologiques qui ont &eacute;t&eacute; d&eacute;velopp&eacute;s et rendus accessibles durant cette p&eacute;riode. De nos jours, plus de 70 % des cas de cancer chez les enfants dans les pays d&eacute;velopp&eacute;s sont gu&eacute;ris(20).<br /> <br /> L&rsquo;un des &eacute;v&eacute;nements marquants des derni&egrave;res d&eacute;cennies a &eacute;t&eacute; le d&eacute;veloppement de th&eacute;rapies cibl&eacute;es, qui sont des traitements m&eacute;dicamenteux ciblant des g&egrave;nes ou des prot&eacute;ines qui contribuent &agrave; la croissance du cancer. En s&rsquo;attaquant plus directement aux cellules canc&eacute;reuses, ces traitements parviennent &agrave; am&eacute;liorer significativement les chances de survie des patients tout en r&eacute;duisant les effets secondaires habituellement associ&eacute;s &agrave; la chimioth&eacute;rapie(21).<br /> <br /> L&rsquo;arriv&eacute;e sur le march&eacute; du m&eacute;dicament Gleevec en 2001 a ainsi r&eacute;volutionn&eacute; la lutte contre la leuc&eacute;mie (LMC). Cette maladie &eacute;tait autrefois hautement mortelle et le nombre d&rsquo;ann&eacute;es de survie d&rsquo;un patient leuc&eacute;mique ne d&eacute;passait gu&egrave;re de 3 &agrave; 6 ans. De nos jours, un patient peut esp&eacute;rer vivre plus de 25 ans. &Eacute;tant donn&eacute; que l&rsquo;&acirc;ge m&eacute;dian auquel on d&eacute;tecte la leuc&eacute;mie est de 60 ans, ces patients ont une esp&eacute;rance de vie comparable &agrave; celle du reste de la population(22).<br /> <br /> <strong>Des d&eacute;fis &agrave; relever</strong><br /> <br /> La diminution des taux de mortalit&eacute; et l&rsquo;allongement de l&rsquo;esp&eacute;rance de vie, s&rsquo;ils demeurent des accomplissements remarquables, se sont cependant accompagn&eacute;s d&rsquo;une mont&eacute;e des maladies chroniques ces derni&egrave;res d&eacute;cennies, comme l&rsquo;arthrite et le diab&egrave;te. Environ 2 millions de Canadiens souffrent actuellement d&rsquo;une forme ou d&rsquo;une autre de diab&egrave;te, et ce nombre est en croissance(23).<br /> <br /> M&ecirc;me si elle ne permet pas la gu&eacute;rison compl&egrave;te, l&rsquo;insuline, d&eacute;couverte dans les ann&eacute;es 1920 par Frederick Banting et d&eacute;velopp&eacute;e ensuite par la compagnie Eli Lilly(24), continue d&rsquo;am&eacute;liorer la qualit&eacute; de vie des diab&eacute;tiques. Avant l&rsquo;arriv&eacute;e de l&rsquo;insuline, le traitement standard consistait &agrave; r&eacute;duire la consommation alimentaire des personnes atteintes. Avec ce traitement, une mort rapide d&eacute;coulant du diab&egrave;te &eacute;tait remplac&eacute;e par une mort lente par la faim(25).<br /> <br /> Depuis la d&eacute;couverte de l&rsquo;insuline, de nombreuses innovations se sont succ&eacute;d&eacute; dans le traitement du diab&egrave;te. Les options des patients se sont accrues ces deux derni&egrave;res d&eacute;cennies avec la d&eacute;couverte de huit nouvelles classes de m&eacute;dicaments permettant de mieux traiter la maladie. Il existe actuellement plus de 180 m&eacute;dicaments au stade de d&eacute;veloppement qui visent &agrave; retarder ou &agrave; freiner la progression du diab&egrave;te, ainsi que r&eacute;duire le risque de complications(26).<br /> <br /> <strong>Conclusion</strong><br /> <br /> L&rsquo;innovation pharmaceutique r&eacute;alis&eacute;e depuis plus de 100 ans a litt&eacute;ralement r&eacute;volutionn&eacute; le domaine de la sant&eacute; et a donn&eacute; naissance &agrave; des traitements dont on ne pourrait plus se passer.<br /> <br /> Les progr&egrave;s r&eacute;alis&eacute;s au fil des ans sont issus d&rsquo;une collaboration &eacute;troite entre les chercheurs du milieu universitaire et ceux de l&rsquo;industrie. Le financement priv&eacute; de la R-D dans le domaine biom&eacute;dical s&rsquo;est toutefois mis &agrave; cro&icirc;tre &agrave; un rythme sans pr&eacute;c&eacute;dent &agrave; partir des ann&eacute;es 1980 et surpasse d&eacute;sormais la part combin&eacute;e du financement provenant du secteur public et des organismes sans but lucratif(27).<br /> <br /> Avec les avanc&eacute;es de la pharmacog&eacute;n&eacute;tique et de la m&eacute;decine personnalis&eacute;e, les m&eacute;decins pourront de plus en plus prescrire des m&eacute;dicaments sur mesure dans l&rsquo;avenir qui tiennent compte du profil g&eacute;n&eacute;tique des patients. Ces innovations sont susceptibles d&rsquo;am&eacute;liorer encore davantage l&rsquo;&eacute;tat de sant&eacute; des malades tout en r&eacute;duisant les risques de toxicit&eacute; et les effets secondaires li&eacute;s &agrave; la prise de m&eacute;dicaments.<br /> <br /> Sans pr&eacute;tendre qu&rsquo;il est possible de tout soigner &agrave; l&rsquo;aide de m&eacute;dicaments ou que la pr&eacute;vention ou d&rsquo;autres facteurs importent peu, on doit reconna&icirc;tre que la recherche pharmaceutique et les progr&egrave;s th&eacute;rapeutiques qui en ont r&eacute;sult&eacute; continuent de rendre d&rsquo;&eacute;normes services aux patients.<br /> <br /> <strong>R&eacute;f&eacute;rences</strong><br /> <br /> 1. Karen N. Eggleston et Victor R. Fuchs, &laquo; The New Demographic Transition: Most Gains in Life Expectancy Now Realized Late in Life &raquo;, Journal of Economic Perspectives, vol. 26, no 3, 2012, p. 140.<br /> 2. Robert F. Schoeni, Vicky A. Freedman et Linda G. Martin, &laquo; Why Is Late-Life Disability Declining? &raquo;, Milbank Quarterly, vol. 86, no 1, 2008, p. 50; Susan T. Stewart, David M. Cutler et Allison B. Rosen, &laquo; US Trends in Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy from 1987 to 2008: Combining National Surveys to More Broadly Track the Health of the Nation &raquo;, American Journal of Public Health, vol. 103, no 11, 2013, p. e80; Eric B. Larson et al. &laquo; New Insights Into the Dementia Epidemic &raquo;, New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 369, 2013, p.&nbsp;2275-2277.<br /> 3. Sandra W. Roush et al., &laquo; Historical Comparisons of Morbidity and Mortality for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States &raquo;, Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 298, no 18, 2007, p. 2155-2163; F. E. Andr&eacute; et al., &laquo; Vaccination greatly reduces disease, disability, death and inequity worldwide &raquo;, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol. 86, no 2, 2008, p.&nbsp;140-146.<br /> 4. Luis Barreto, Rob Van Exan et Christopher J. Rutty, &laquo; Polio Vaccine Development in Canada: Contributions to Global Polio Eradication &raquo;, Biologicals, vol. 34, no 2, 2006, p. 91-101.<br /> 5. Seema Jayachandran, Adriana Lleras-Muney et Kimberly V. Smith, &laquo; Modern Medicine and the Twentieth Century Decline in Mortality: Evidence on the Impact of Sulfa Drugs &raquo;, American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, vol. 2, no 2, 2010, p. 119.<br /> 6. R. D. Fraser, Statistiques historiques du Canada, Section B : Statistique de l&#39;&eacute;tat civil et sant&eacute;, s&eacute;ries B35-50, Statistique Canada, juillet 1999. On parle ici de la tuberculose, la pneumonie, l&rsquo;influenza, la bronchite, la dipht&eacute;rie, la coqueluche, la rougeole, la scarlatine et la fi&egrave;vre typho&iuml;de.<br /> 7. Anthony S. Fauci et David M Morens, &laquo; The Perpetual Challenge of Infectious Disease &raquo;, New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 366, 2012, p. 454-461.<br /> 8. Rochelle P. Walenski et al., &laquo; The Survival Benefits of AIDS Treatment in the United States &raquo;, Journal of Infectious Disease, vol. 194, 2006, p. 11-19.<br /> 9. Mark G. Duggan et William N. Evans, &laquo; Estimating the Impact of Medical Innovation: A Case Study of HIV Antiretroviral Treatments &raquo;, Forum of Health Economics &amp; Policy, vol. 11, no 2, 2008, p. 5.<br /> 10. Hasina Samji et al., &laquo; Closing the Gap: Increases in Life Expectancy among Treated HIV-Positive Individuals in the United States and Canada &raquo;, PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no 12, 2013.<br /> 11. Tinsley R. Harrison, &laquo; Abuse of Rest as a Therapeutic Measure for Patients with Cardiovascular Disease &raquo;, Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 125, no 16, 1944, p. 1075-1077.<br /> 12. Vijayalakshmi Kunadian et C. Michael Gibson, &laquo;&nbsp;Thrombolytics and Myocardial Infarction &raquo;, Cardiovascular Therapeutics, vol. 30, 2012, p. e81-e88.<br /> 13. David M. Cutler et al., &laquo; The Value of Antihypertensive Drugs: A Perspective on Medical Innovation &raquo;, Health Affairs, vol. 26, no 1, 2007, p. 97-110; Earl S. Ford et al., &laquo; Explaining the Decrease in U.S. Deaths in Coronary Disease, 1980-2000 &raquo;, New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 356, no 23, 2007, p. 2388-2398; David C. Grabowski et al., &laquo; The Large Social Value Resulting from Use of Statins Warrants Steps to Improve Adherence and Broaden Treatment&nbsp;&raquo;, Health Affairs, vol. 31, no 10, 2012, p. 2276-2285.<br /> 14. Voir notamment Angus Deaton, The Great Escape: Health, Wealth, and the Origins of Inequality, Princeton University Press, 2013, p. 136.<br /> 15. Siddhartha Mukherjee, The Emperor of All Maladies: A Bibliography of Cancer, Scribner, 2010.<br /> 16. Frank Lichtenberg, &laquo; Has Medical Innovation Reduced Cancer Mortality? &raquo;, CESifo Economics Studies, vol. 60, no 1, 2014, p. 139.<br /> 17. Bruce A. Chabner et Thomas G. Roberts Jr., &laquo; Chemotherapy and the War on Cancer &raquo;, Nature Reviews: Cancer, vol. 5, 2005, p. 70.<br /> 18. Organisation de coop&eacute;ration et de d&eacute;veloppement &eacute;conomiques, Panorama de la sant&eacute; 2013, p. 31.<br /> 19. Frank Lichtenberg, op. cit., note 16, p. 31-32.<br /> 20. Liliane Chatenoud et al., &laquo; Childhood Cancer Mortality in America, Asia, and Oceania, 1970 through 2007 &raquo;, Cancer, vol. 116, 2010, p. 5073.<br /> 21. Voir par exemple Jean-Louis Santini, &laquo; Cancers agressifs : de nouvelles th&eacute;rapies cibl&eacute;es prometteuses &raquo;, La Presse, 31 mai 2014.<br /> 22. M. J. Duffy, &laquo; The War on Cancer: Are We Winning? &raquo;, Tumor Biology, vol. 34, 2013, p. 1278.<br /> 23. Agence de la sant&eacute; publique du Canada, L&rsquo;esp&eacute;rance de vie ajust&eacute;e en fonction de l&rsquo;&eacute;tat de sant&eacute; au Canada, Gouvernement du Canada, 2012, p. 2.<br /> 24. Michael Bliss, &laquo; The History of Insulin &raquo;, Diabetes Care, vol. 16, suppl. 3, 1993, p. 4-7.<br /> 25. Richard Epstein, &laquo; The Tale of How Insulin Came to Market &raquo;, Defining Ideas: A Hoover Institution Journal, janvier 2011.<br /> 26. Phrma, &laquo; Biopharmaceutical Research Companies Are Developing 180 Medicines to Treat Diabetes and Related Conditions &raquo;, Medicines in Development &mdash; Diabetes, 2014 Report, p. 1.<br /> 27. E. Ray Dorsey, &laquo; Funding of US Biomedical Research, 2003-2008 &raquo;, Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 303, no 2, 2010, p. 139.</p> </div> </div> </div> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/49312-comment-l-innovation-pharmaceutique-a-revolutionne-le-domaine-de-la-sante" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Wed, 18 Jun 2014 09:00:00 +0000 iedm 49312 at http://www.iedm.org How Pharmaceutical Innovation Has Revolutionized Health Care http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49311 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-subtitle"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Economic Note describing some of the most important contributions of pharmaceutical research to the betterment of health conditions over the past century </div> </div> </div> <p>Never before in the history of humanity has there been as rapid an increase in longevity as there was during the 20th century. In industrialized countries, life expectancy at birth has risen from an average of about 50 years in 1900 to a little over 80 years today. A growing number of people can now live not only longer but also healthier than ever before. Indeed, substantial gains in terms of quality-adjusted life expectancy have been recorded for decades in many countries.</p><div class="field field-type-text field-field-full"> <div class="field-label">Contenu complet:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><strong>This <em>Economic Note</em> was prepared by Yanick Labrie, an economist with the Montreal Economic Institute who holds a master&rsquo;s degree in economics (Universit&eacute; de Montr&eacute;al).</strong><br /> <br /> Never before in the history of humanity has there been as rapid an increase in longevity as there was during the 20th century. In industrialized countries, life expectancy at birth has risen from an average of about 50 years in 1900 to a little over 80&nbsp;years today.(1) A&nbsp;growing number of people can now live not only longer but also healthier than ever&nbsp;before. Indeed, substantial gains in terms of quality-adjusted life expectancy have been recorded for decades in&nbsp;many countries.(2)<br /> <br /> The causes of this progress are complex and varied. Certainly, the improvement of hygiene conditions, the development of water sanitation systems and the changing of dietary habits, as well as the increasing wealth of the population, have all contributed to reducing mortality and markedly improving health conditions.<br /> <br /> The field of medicine has also made enormous progress over the course of the past century. The evolution of biomedical knowledge gave rise to a new branch of medicine, namely pharmacology. The discovery of new drugs and vaccines led to more effective treatments for many diseases, and even to outright cures for many others that were long considered incurable. This <em>Economic Note</em> revisits a few of the most important contributions of the pharmaceutical field over the past century.<br /> <br /> <strong>The Elimination of Numerous Infectious Diseases</strong><br /> <br /> It would be hard to think of an innovation in the field of health care that has saved more lives than vaccines.(3) Before mass immunization, populations lived under the constant threat of being hit by various infectious disease epidemics.<br /> <br /> At the start of the 20th century, the main causes of death were diseases like tuberculosis, pneumonia, smallpox, diphtheria, polio, influenza and bronchitis. Polio, for example, was responsible for the paralysis, disability and death of thousands of Canadians during the first half of the century.(4) After the arrival of the vaccine in 1955, polio cases plummeted within a few years and the disease was subsequently eradicated (see Table 1 on iedm.org), not only in Canada but also in most regions of the world.<br /> <br /> Sulfa drugs, those belonging to the class of sulfonamides discovered in the 1930s, as well as the first antibiotics like penicillin developed in the 1940s, also greatly reduced the number of deaths due to infectious diseases, starting with pneumonia and scarlet fever.(5) In Canada, the mortality rate related to the main contagious diseases fell by more than 80% between the start of the 1920s and the year 1960.(6)<br /> <br /> Of course, contagious diseases can appear very suddenly and spread rapidly,(7) the AIDS epidemic that began in the early 1980s being the perfect example.<br /> <br /> Nonetheless, researchers have estimated that the combination of antiretroviral treatments (tritherapy) for patients with HIV/AIDS have saved the equivalent of three million years of life between 1989 and 2003 in the United States.(8) Just in the three years following the introduction of the innovative drug Epivir in 1995, the mortality rate fell by 70%.(9) Thanks to these therapeutic advances, a young 20-year-old adult with HIV/AIDS living in Canada or the United States today can expect to live to the age of 70 and beyond, nearly as long as the rest of the population.(10)<br /> <br /> <strong>The Prevention and Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease</strong><br /> <br /> During the first half of the 20th century, bed rest was the standard treatment for people suffering from heart disease.(11) Today, several treatment options are available that save lives and allow these people to remain active.<br /> <br /> Drugs like aspirin help dissolve blood clots and re-establish the flow of blood to the heart. Beta-blockers, developed starting in the 1960s, can be prescribed to reduce blood pressure, which in turn reduces the workload of the heart. As for drugs in the statin class like Lipitor, which began appearing in the late 1980s, they help to lower blood cholesterol levels. In serious cases like heart attacks and strokes, patients are treated with thrombolytic drugs that, when administered quickly, can prevent or greatly limit any long-term damage.(12)<br /> <br /> All of these drugs have led to significant reductions in patient mortality and morbidity, as numerous studies confirm.(13) Since 1970, the mortality rate from heart disease has fallen by nearly half in the United States (see Figure 1 on iedm.org), and a similar trend can be observed in industrialized countries as a whole.(14)<br /> <br /> <strong>Increased Efforts to Fight Cancer</strong><br /> <br /> Before the 1950s, the treatment of cancer was essentially in the hands of surgeons, and the hopes of long-term cancer survival were basically nil. As documented by historian and oncologist Siddhartha Mukherjee in his Pulitzer Prize-winning work, the advent of chemotherapy and the pharmacological progress that took place during the second half of the 20th century gradually led to substantial gains in the battle against cancer.(15)<br /> <br /> Cancer drugs are the ones that now most attract the attention of pharmaceutical companies. Nearly three times as many innovative oncological drugs were developed between 1990 and 2009 as were launched between 1970 and 1989.(16) Within a period of a few years, a modest initiative primarily financed with public funds became a veritable armada involving thousands of companies and hundreds of billions of dollars of private investment.(17)<br /> <br /> These efforts are starting to bear fruit. Since the early 1990s, the age-adjusted cancer mortality rate has been falling in industrialized countries(18) and in much of the rest of the world as well. Economist Frank Lichtenberg of Columbia University recently looked into the connection between pharmaceutical innovation and mortality rates for some 60 types of cancer. For the 1990-2009 period, he found that the use of new drugs was responsible for nearly 60% of observed reductions in cancer-related mortality rates.(19)<br /> <br /> It is without a doubt in the treatment of cancers afflicting children that the most remarkable advances have been made. Since the early 1970s, the mortality rate for these types of cancer have fallen by 3% a year on average in Canada, the United States, Australia and Japan, in large part thanks to pharmacological treatments that were developed and made accessible during this period. Today, over 70% of childhood cancer cases that occur in industrialized countries are cured.(20)<br /> <br /> One of the most striking events in recent decades has been the development of targeted therapies, which are medical treatments targeting certain genes or proteins that contribute to tumour growth. By attacking cancerous cells more directly, these treatments significantly improve patients&rsquo; chances of survival, all while reducing the side effects usually associated with chemotherapy.(21)<br /> <br /> For instance, the arrival on the market of the drug Gleevec in 2001 revolutionized the battle against leukemia (CML). This disease used to be highly lethal and the number of years of survival for a leukemia survivor rarely extended beyond 3 to 6 years. Today, a patient can expect to live over 25 years. Given that the median age at which leukemia is detected is 60, the life expectancy of these patients is comparable to that of the rest of the population.(22)<br /> <br /> <strong>Challenges</strong><br /> <br /> Falling mortality rates and higher life expectancy, while remarkable accomplishments, have been accompanied in recent decades by increases in chronic conditions like arthritis and diabetes. Some two million Canadians currently suffer from one form or another of diabetes, and this number is growing.(23)<br /> <br /> Even though it is not a cure, insulin, discovered in the 1920s by Frederick Banting and subsequently developed by Eli Lilly and Company,(24) continues to improve the quality of life of diabetics. Before insulin, the standard treatment consisted in reducing the food intake of sufferers. This treatment replaced a quick death from diabetes with a slow death from starvation.(25)<br /> <br /> Since the discovery of insulin, numerous innovations in the treatment of diabetes have followed. Patients&rsquo; options have grown over the past two decades with the discovery of eight new classes of drugs to better treat the disease. There are currently over 180 drugs in the development stage whose purpose is to slow or stop the progression of diabetes, or to reduce the risk of complications.(26)<br /> <br /> <strong>Conclusion</strong><br /> <br /> For over 100 years, pharmaceutical innovation has literally revolutionized health care, and has given rise to treatments that we could no longer do without.<br /> <br /> The progress we have enjoyed over the years is the result of a close collaboration between university and industry researchers. Private, for-profit R&amp;D funding in the biomedical field began to grow at an unprecedented pace in the 1980s, however, and now exceeds funding from the public and non-profit sectors combined.(27)<br /> <br /> With advances in pharmacogenetics and personalized medicine, doctors in the future will increasingly be able to prescribe made-to-measure drugs that take patients&rsquo; genetic profiles into account. These innovations will likely further improve the health of patients while also reducing the risks of toxicity and side effects related to the use of medicines.<br /> <br /> Without pretending that every condition can be treated with drugs or that prevention and other factors are not also important, we must recognize that pharmaceutical research and the therapeutic progress it has entailed continue to be of enormous service to patients.<br /> <br /> <strong>References</strong><br /> <br /> 1. Karen N. Eggleston and Victor R. Fuchs, &ldquo;The New Demographic Transition: Most Gains in Life Expectancy Now Realized Late in Life,&rdquo; Journal of Economic Perspectives, Vol. 26, No. 3, 2012, p. 140.<br /> 2. Robert F. Schoeni, Vicky A. Freedman and Linda G. Martin, &ldquo;Why Is Late-Life Disability Declining?&rdquo; Milbank Quarterly, Vol. 86, No. 1, 2008, p. 50; Susan T. Stewart, David M. Cutler and Allison B. Rosen, &ldquo;US Trends in Quality-Adjusted Life Expectancy from 1987 to 2008: Combining National Surveys to More Broadly Track the Health of the Nation,&rdquo; American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 103, No. 11, 2013, p. e80; Eric B. Larson et al. &ldquo;New Insights Into the Dementia Epidemic,&rdquo; New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 369, 2013, pp.&nbsp;2275-2277.<br /> 3. Sandra W. Roush et al., &ldquo;Historical Comparisons of Morbidity and Mortality for Vaccine-Preventable Diseases in the United States,&rdquo; Journal of the American&nbsp;Medical Association, Vol. 298, No. 18, 2007, pp. 2155-2163; F. E. Andr&eacute; et al., &ldquo;Vaccination greatly reduces disease, disability, death and inequity worldwide,&rdquo; Bulletin of the World Health Organization, Vol. 86, No. 2, 2008, pp.&nbsp;140-146.<br /> 4. Luis Barreto, Rob Van Exan and Christopher J. Rutty, &ldquo;Polio Vaccine Development in Canada: Contributions to Global Polio Eradication,&rdquo; Biologicals, Vol. 34, Issue 2, 2006, pp. 91-101.<br /> 5. Seema Jayachandran, Adriana Lleras-Muney and Kimberly V. Smith, &ldquo;Modern Medicine and the Twentieth Century Decline in Mortality: Evidence on the Impact of Sulfa Drugs,&rdquo; American Economic Journal: Applied Economics, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2010, p. 119.<br /> 6. R. D. Fraser, Historical Statistics of Canada, Section B: Vital Statistics and Health, Series B35-50, Statistics Canada, July 1999. This refers to tuberculosis, pneumonia, influenza, bronchitis, diphtheria, whooping cough, measles, scarlet fever and typhoid fever.<br /> 7. Anthony S. Fauci and David M Morens, &ldquo;The Perpetual Challenge of Infectious Disease,&rdquo; New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 366, 2012, pp. 454-461.<br /> 8. Rochelle P. Walenski et al., &ldquo;The Survival Benefits of AIDS Treatment in the United States,&rdquo; Journal of Infectious Disease, Vol. 194, 2006, pp. 11-19.<br /> 9. Mark G. Duggan and William N. Evans, &ldquo;Estimating the Impact of Medical Innovation: A Case Study of HIV Antiretroviral Treatments,&rdquo; Forum of Health Economics &amp; Policy, Vol. 11, No. 2, 2008, p. 5.<br /> 10. Hasina Samji et al., &ldquo;Closing the Gap: Increases in Life Expectancy among Treated HIV-Positive Individuals in the United States and Canada,&rdquo; PLoS ONE, Vol. 8, No. 12, 2013.<br /> 11. Tinsley R. Harrison, &ldquo;Abuse of Rest as a Therapeutic Measure for Patients with Cardiovascular Disease,&rdquo; Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 125, No. 16, 1944, pp. 1075-1077.<br /> 12. Vijayalakshmi Kunadian and C. Michael Gibson, &ldquo;Thrombolytics and Myocardial Infarction,&rdquo; Cardiovascular Therapeutics, Vol. 30, 2012, pp. e81-e88.<br /> 13. David M. Cutler et al., &ldquo;The Value of Antihypertensive Drugs: A Perspective on Medical Innovation,&rdquo; Health Affairs, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2007, pp. 97-110; Earl S. Ford et al., &ldquo;Explaining the Decrease in U.S. Deaths in Coronary Disease, 1980-2000,&rdquo; New England Journal of Medicine, Vol. 356, No. 23, 2007, pp. 2388-2398; David C. Grabowski et al., &ldquo;The Large Social Value Resulting from Use of Statins Warrants Steps to Improve Adherence and Broaden Treatment,&rdquo; Health Affairs, Vol. 31, No. 10, 2012, pp. 2276-2285.<br /> 14. See among others Angus Deaton, The Great Escape: Health, Wealth, and the Origins of Inequality, Princeton University Press, 2013, p. 136.<br /> 15. Siddhartha Mukherjee, The Emperor of All Maladies: A Bibliography of Cancer, Scribner, 2010.<br /> 16. Frank Lichtenberg, &ldquo;Has Medical Innovation Reduced Cancer Mortality?&rdquo; CESifo Economics Studies, Vol. 60, No. 1, 2014, p. 139.<br /> 17. Bruce A. Chabner and Thomas G. Roberts Jr., &ldquo;Chemotherapy and the War on Cancer,&rdquo; Nature Reviews: Cancer, Vol. 5, 2005, p. 70.<br /> 18. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Health at a Glance&nbsp;2013, p. 31.<br /> 19. Frank Lichtenberg, op. cit., footnote 16, pp. 31-32.<br /> 20. Liliane Chatenoud et al., &ldquo;Childhood Cancer Mortality in America, Asia, and Oceania, 1970 through 2007,&rdquo; Cancer, Vol. 116, 2010, p. 5073.<br /> 21. See for example Jean-Louis Santini, &ldquo;Cancers agressifs : de nouvelles th&eacute;rapies cibl&eacute;es prometteuses,&rdquo; La Presse, May 31, 2014.<br /> 22. M. J. Duffy, &ldquo;The War on Cancer: Are We Winning?&rdquo; Tumor Biology, Vol. 34, 2013, p. 1278.<br /> 23. Public Health Agency of Canada, Health-Adjusted Life Expectancy in Canada, Government of Canada, 2012, p. 2.<br /> 24. Michael Bliss, &ldquo;The History of Insulin,&rdquo; Diabetes Care, Vol. 16, Supplement 3, 1993, pp. 4-7.<br /> 25. Richard Epstein, &ldquo;The Tale of How Insulin Came to Market,&rdquo; Defining Ideas: A Hoover Institution Journal, January 2011.<br /> 26. Phrma, &ldquo;Biopharmaceutical Research Companies Are Developing 180 Medicines to Treat Diabetes and Related Conditions,&rdquo; Medicines in Development &mdash; Diabetes, 2014 Report, p. 1.<br /> 27. E. Ray Dorsey, &ldquo;Funding of US Biomedical Research, 2003-2008,&rdquo; Journal of the American Medical Association, Vol. 303, No. 2, 2010, p. 139.</p> </div> </div> </div> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/49311" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Wed, 18 Jun 2014 09:00:00 +0000 iedm 49311 at http://www.iedm.org L’éolien a la tête dans les nuages http://www.iedm.org/fr/49295-l-olien-a-la-t-te-dans-les-nuages <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.blogues.journaldemontreal.com/iedm, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <p>Les subventions implicites accord&eacute;es &agrave; l&#39;&eacute;nergie &eacute;olienne, &agrave; la biomasse et aux petites centrales hydro&eacute;lectriques.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/49295-l-olien-a-la-t-te-dans-les-nuages" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Thu, 12 Jun 2014 20:57:04 +0000 iedm 49295 at http://www.iedm.org