http://www.iedm.org/fr/rss fr Faire confiance aux écoles pour favoriser la réussite des élèves http://www.iedm.org/fr/63068-faire-confiance-aux-ecoles-pour-favoriser-la-reussite-des-eleves <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Des &eacute;coles plus autonomes et responsables pourraient aider les &eacute;tudiants &agrave; avoir davantage de succ&egrave;s acad&eacute;mique.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/63068-faire-confiance-aux-ecoles-pour-favoriser-la-reussite-des-eleves" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:40:32 +0000 iedm 63068 at http://www.iedm.org Faire confiance aux écoles pour favoriser la réussite des élèves http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/63067 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>More autonomous and accountable schools could help students be more successful academically.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/63067" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:38:05 +0000 iedm 63067 at http://www.iedm.org Le Point – Abolir les commissions scolaires pour favoriser la réussite des élèves http://www.iedm.org/fr/63043-le-point-abolir-les-commissions-scolaires-pour-favoriser-la-reussite-des-eleves <div class="field field-type-text field-field-subtitle"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Point montrant que des écoles plus autonomes et responsables pourraient aider les étudiants à avoir davantage de succès académique </div> </div> </div> <p>Les plus r&eacute;cents r&eacute;sultats d&rsquo;&eacute;lections scolaires fournissaient une occasion r&ecirc;v&eacute;e de supprimer cette institution superflue afin de permettre l&rsquo;&eacute;mergence d&rsquo;&eacute;coles plus autonomes. Le gouvernement du Qu&eacute;bec a pr&eacute;sent&eacute; en d&eacute;cembre 2015 un projet de loi qui allait en ce sens. Cependant, le nouveau ministre de l&rsquo;&Eacute;ducation, S&eacute;bastien Proulx, a d&eacute;cid&eacute; de laisser tomber les modifications de structures pour plut&ocirc;t se concentrer sur la r&eacute;ussite scolaire.</p><div class="field field-type-text field-field-full"> <div class="field-label">Contenu complet:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><strong>Ce <em>Point</em> a &eacute;t&eacute; pr&eacute;par&eacute; par Youri Chassin, &eacute;conomiste et directeur de la recherche &agrave; l&rsquo;IEDM, avec la collaboration de Vincent Geloso, chercheur associ&eacute; &agrave; l&rsquo;IEDM. <em>La Collection &Eacute;ducation de l&rsquo;IEDM vise &agrave; explorer dans quelle mesure une plus grande autonomie institutionnelle et la libert&eacute; de choix pour les &eacute;tudiants et les parents permettent d&rsquo;am&eacute;liorer la qualit&eacute; des services d&rsquo;&eacute;ducation.</em></strong><br /> <br /> Depuis 1990, le taux de participation aux &eacute;lections scolaires a fl&eacute;chi de mani&egrave;re alarmante. M&ecirc;me si le ministre de l&rsquo;&Eacute;ducation d&rsquo;alors, Yves Bolduc, avait li&eacute; l&rsquo;avenir des commissions scolaires au taux de participation(1), seulement 5,54&nbsp;% des Qu&eacute;b&eacute;cois ont vot&eacute; aux &eacute;lections de 2014 (<a href="/files/image/figure1lepoint1316_fr.jpg" target="_blank">voir Figure 1</a>). Le&nbsp;taux de participation a toutefois &eacute;t&eacute; plus &eacute;lev&eacute; dans les commissions anglophones (16,88&nbsp;%) que dans les commissions francophones, o&ugrave; le seuil de 5&nbsp;% n&rsquo;a m&ecirc;me pas &eacute;t&eacute; atteint (4,87&nbsp;%). Par ailleurs, plus de 40&nbsp;% des &laquo;&nbsp;&eacute;lus&nbsp;&raquo; scolaires sont d&eacute;sign&eacute;s sans opposition et sans &eacute;lection(2). De tels niveaux de participation illustrent le manque de l&eacute;gitimit&eacute; d&rsquo;une institution qui avait &eacute;t&eacute; con&ccedil;ue pour favoriser la proximit&eacute; entre les &eacute;coles et leurs collectivit&eacute;s.<br /> <br /> Ces plus r&eacute;cents r&eacute;sultats d&rsquo;&eacute;lections fournissaient une occasion r&ecirc;v&eacute;e de supprimer cette institution superflue afin de permettre l&rsquo;&eacute;mergence d&rsquo;&eacute;coles plus autonomes. Le gouvernement du Qu&eacute;bec a pr&eacute;sent&eacute; en d&eacute;cembre 2015 un projet de loi qui allait en ce sens(3). Cependant, le nouveau ministre de l&rsquo;&Eacute;ducation, S&eacute;bastien Proulx, a d&eacute;cid&eacute; de laisser tomber les modifications de structures pour plut&ocirc;t se concentrer sur la r&eacute;ussite scolaire(4). Or, abolir les commissions scolaires et confier plus d&rsquo;autonomie aux &eacute;coles permet justement une meilleure r&eacute;ussite des &eacute;l&egrave;ves.<br /> <br /> <strong>Les commissions scolaires sont-elles n&eacute;cessaires?</strong><br /> <br /> Les commissions scolaires prennent en main de nombreux aspects de la gestion du personnel tant enseignant que non enseignant (embauche, licenciement, &eacute;valuation, promotion, etc.), veillent &agrave; l&rsquo;entretien des installations, fournissent un soutien p&eacute;dagogique au personnel et organisent les op&eacute;rations de transport scolaire. Cependant, toutes ces activit&eacute;s pourraient &ecirc;tre exerc&eacute;es par des &eacute;coles autonomes. En fait, au Qu&eacute;bec, il existe certaines &eacute;coles qui ne se pr&eacute;valent pas du soutien offert par les commissions scolaires : ce sont les 342 &eacute;coles du r&eacute;seau d&rsquo;enseignement priv&eacute;(5). Chacune de ces &eacute;coles g&egrave;re individuellement son personnel, ses services p&eacute;dagogiques et ses installations. Dans beaucoup d&rsquo;entre elles, des conseils d&rsquo;administration compos&eacute;s de membres du personnel et de la collectivit&eacute; supervisent le travail des directeurs d&rsquo;&eacute;cole et de leurs &eacute;quipes(6).<br /> <br /> L&rsquo;exp&eacute;rience des &eacute;coles priv&eacute;es donne &agrave; penser que les commissions scolaires sont superflues. Les d&eacute;fenseurs des commissions scolaires r&eacute;pliquent souvent que des &eacute;conomies d&rsquo;&eacute;chelle r&eacute;sultent d&rsquo;une foule de d&eacute;penses li&eacute;es &agrave; la gestion ou aux achats en gros de fournitures n&eacute;cessaires. Si de telles &eacute;conomies sont possibles, tr&egrave;s peu d&rsquo;&eacute;l&eacute;ments de preuve viennent les confirmer dans le domaine de l&rsquo;&eacute;ducation(7). Pour r&eacute;aliser des &eacute;conomies d&rsquo;&eacute;chelle, il faut g&eacute;n&eacute;ralement appliquer une approche uniformis&eacute;e pour ce qui est de la production de services. Or, beaucoup d&rsquo;&eacute;coles ont des client&egrave;les tr&egrave;s particuli&egrave;res ou des orientations sp&eacute;cifiques, si bien qu&rsquo;elles font face &agrave; des besoins sp&eacute;ciaux qui n&eacute;cessitent de la flexibilit&eacute; relativement au choix des services fournis et &agrave; la mani&egrave;re de les fournir, notamment pour les d&eacute;cisions visant l&rsquo;embauche et l&rsquo;&eacute;valuation des enseignants(8).<br /> <br /> Ainsi, les &eacute;conomies d&rsquo;&eacute;chelle ne constituent pas un argument solide en faveur des commissions scolaires parce qu&rsquo;elles ne sont pas automatiques. Il n&rsquo;est m&ecirc;me pas n&eacute;cessaire d&rsquo;avoir une commission scolaire pour r&eacute;aliser des &eacute;conomies d&rsquo;&eacute;chelle. Quand cela est plus efficace pour elles, des &eacute;coles ind&eacute;pendantes peuvent s&rsquo;associer pour acheter en grande quantit&eacute; ou embaucher du personnel sp&eacute;cialis&eacute; sans &ecirc;tre oblig&eacute;es de passer par une commission scolaire. Les &eacute;coles priv&eacute;es le font d&eacute;j&agrave; sur une base volontaire.<br /> <br /> <strong>Les commissions scolaires sont-elles utiles?</strong><br /> <br /> En l&rsquo;absence de commission scolaire, les &eacute;coles auraient la libert&eacute; d&rsquo;utiliser le mat&eacute;riel p&eacute;dagogique qui leur semble le plus appropri&eacute; et de g&eacute;rer les ressources dont elles disposent de la mani&egrave;re r&eacute;pondant le mieux aux besoins particuliers de leurs &eacute;l&egrave;ves. Id&eacute;alement, elles devraient aussi composer avec la possibilit&eacute; que des parents transf&egrave;rent leurs enfants &ndash; avec le financement public correspondant &ndash; dans une autre &eacute;cole(9). Cette combinaison d&rsquo;autonomie et de responsabilisation donne les r&eacute;sultats les plus avantageux.<br /> <br /> Il existe une abondante documentation &eacute;tablissant les bienfaits d&rsquo;une telle approche sur la performance des &eacute;l&egrave;ves et la poursuite de leurs &eacute;tudes au niveau postsecondaire(10). Cette approche comporte aussi d&rsquo;importants bienfaits li&eacute;s aux comp&eacute;tences g&eacute;n&eacute;rales qu&rsquo;il est plus difficile de mesurer. Les comp&eacute;tences g&eacute;n&eacute;rales sont des attributs sociaux qu&rsquo;on apprend afin d&rsquo;interagir efficacement avec autrui. Elles affichent une &eacute;troite corr&eacute;lation avec certains r&eacute;sultats de vie plus avanc&eacute;e, dont un moindre risque de ch&ocirc;mage et un revenu plus &eacute;lev&eacute;(11).<br /> <br /> Par cons&eacute;quent, une approche bas&eacute;e sur l&rsquo;autonomie et la responsabilisation produit des bienfaits &agrave; long terme qui influeront sur d&rsquo;autres r&eacute;sultats socio&eacute;conomiques(12). En outre, quand pareille approche est appliqu&eacute;e, elle suscite une plus grande participation des parents et des collectivit&eacute;s locales(13). Il est fort possible que les commissions scolaires emp&ecirc;chent la pleine mat&eacute;rialisation de ces bienfaits.<br /> <br /> Il est important de r&eacute;aliser que l&rsquo;autonomie des &eacute;coles constitue un pas important vers l&rsquo;objectif d&rsquo;une meilleure r&eacute;ussite scolaire. Les r&eacute;sultats des &eacute;lections de 2014, qui ont confirm&eacute; le manque de l&eacute;gitimit&eacute; des commissions scolaires, auraient d&ucirc; fournir une incitation suffisante &agrave; la r&eacute;forme. Malheureusement, le gouvernement a laiss&eacute; filer cette occasion d&rsquo;accro&icirc;tre l&rsquo;autonomie et la responsabilisation des &eacute;coles. Il reste toutefois encore deux ans d&rsquo;ici les prochaines &eacute;lections scolaires.<br /> <br /> <strong>R&eacute;f&eacute;rences</strong><br /> <br /> 1. Pierre Saint-Arnaud, &laquo;&nbsp;Yves Bolduc lie l&rsquo;avenir des commissions scolaires aux r&eacute;sultats des &eacute;lections&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Le Soleil</em>, 3 octobre 2014.<br /> 2. Minist&egrave;re de l&rsquo;&Eacute;ducation du Qu&eacute;bec, R&eacute;sultats pr&eacute;liminaires des &eacute;lections scolaires de 2014.<br /> 3. Assembl&eacute;e nationale du Qu&eacute;bec, <em>Projet de loi no 86 : Loi modifiant l&rsquo;organisation et la gouvernance des commissions scolaires en vue de rapprocher l&rsquo;&eacute;cole des lieux de d&eacute;cision et d&rsquo;assurer la pr&eacute;sence des parents au sein de l&rsquo;instance d&eacute;cisionnelle de la commission scolaire</em>, d&eacute;cembre 2015.<br /> 4. ICI Radio-Canada, &laquo;&nbsp;Proulx maintiendra les &eacute;lections scolaires&nbsp;&raquo;, 13 mai 2016.<br /> 5. Minist&egrave;re de l&rsquo;&Eacute;ducation, de l&rsquo;Enseignement sup&eacute;rieur et de la Recherche du Qu&eacute;bec, <em>Statistiques de l&rsquo;&eacute;ducation : &Eacute;ducation pr&eacute;scolaire, enseignement primaire et secondaire&mdash;&Eacute;dition 2015</em>, Gouvernement du Qu&eacute;bec, &agrave; para&icirc;tre. Donn&eacute;e obtenue du minist&egrave;re.<br /> 6. Robert Gagn&eacute;, &laquo;&nbsp;Les commissions scolaires et la taxe scolaire ont-elles encore une raison d&rsquo;&ecirc;tre?&nbsp;&raquo;, Note &eacute;conomique, IEDM, f&eacute;vrier 2007.<br /> 7. Mike Smet et Walter Nonneman, &laquo;&nbsp;Economies of scale and scope in Flemish secondary schools&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Applied Economics</em>, vol. 30, no 9, septembre 1998, p. 1251-1258; Edwin West et Stephen Ferris, &laquo;&nbsp;Economies of scale, school violence and the optimal size of schools&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Applied Economics</em>, vol. 36, no 15, septembre 2004, p. 1677-1684; Herbert Walberg et William Fowler, &laquo;&nbsp;Expenditure and Size Efficiencies of Public School Districts&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Educational Researcher</em>, vol. 16, no 7, octobre 1987, p. 5-13.<br /> 8. Youri Chassin, &laquo;&nbsp;Valoriser la profession enseignante en cong&eacute;diant les enseignants incomp&eacute;tents&nbsp;&raquo;, Note &eacute;conomique, IEDM, janvier 2016.<br /> 9. Bien que ce soit parfois possible, choisir une &eacute;cole autre que celle d&eacute;sign&eacute;e est tr&egrave;s difficile en vertu du syst&egrave;me public actuel.<br /> 10. Mathieu B&eacute;dard, &laquo;&nbsp;Autonomie p&eacute;dagogique et responsabilisation : une recette pour am&eacute;liorer les r&eacute;sultats scolaires&nbsp;&raquo;, Note &eacute;conomique, IEDM, ao&ucirc;t 2015.<br /> 11. Mathilde Almlund <em>et al</em>., <em>Personality Psychology and Economics</em>, document de travail 16822, National Bureau of Economic Research, f&eacute;vrier 2011; James Heckman et Tim Kautz, &laquo;&nbsp;Hard Evidence on Soft Skills&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Labour Economics</em>, vol. 19, no 4, ao&ucirc;t 2012, p. 451-464; Francis Green <em>et al</em>., &laquo;&nbsp;The Changing Economic Advantage from Private Schools&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>Economica</em>, vol. 79, no 316, octobre 2012, p. 658-679.<br /> 12. Victor Lavy, <em>Long Run Effects of Free School Choice: College Attainment, Employment, Earnings, and Social Outcomes at Adulthood</em>, document de travail no 20843, National Bureau of Economic Research, janvier 2015.<br /> 13. Mark Schneider <em>et al</em>., &laquo;&nbsp;Institutional Arrangements and the Creation of Social Capital: The Effects of Public School Choice&nbsp;&raquo;, <em>American Political Science Review</em>, vol. 91, no 1, mars 1997, p. 82-93. ​</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-snpicture"> <div class="field-label">RS Image:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> /files/image/large-lepoint1316_en.jpg </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-sn"> <div class="field-label">RS:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Les plus récents résultats d’élections scolaires fournissaient une occasion rêvée de supprimer cette institution superflue afin de permettre l’émergence d’écoles plus autonomes. Le gouvernement du Québec a présenté en décembre 2015 un projet de loi qui allait en ce sens. Cependant, le nouveau ministre de l’Éducation, Sébastien Proulx, a décidé de laisser tomber les modifications de structures pour plutôt se concentrer sur la réussite scolaire. Or, abolir les commissions scolaires et confier plus d’autonomie aux écoles permet justement une meilleure réussite des élèves. </div> </div> </div> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/63043-le-point-abolir-les-commissions-scolaires-pour-favoriser-la-reussite-des-eleves" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:00:00 +0000 iedm 63043 at http://www.iedm.org Viewpoint – Abolishing School Boards to Promote Student Success http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/63042 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-subtitle"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Viewpoint showing that more autonomous and accountable schools could help students be more successful academically </div> </div> </div> <p>The most recent school board election results represented a golden opportunity to do away with this superfluous institution in order to allow the emergence of more autonomous schools. In December 2015, the Quebec government introduced a bill that went in this direction. However, the new Education Minister, S&eacute;bastien Proulx, decided to drop the structural modifications and focus instead on academic success. Yet abolishing school boards and entrusting schools with more autonomy would in fact promote the success of students.<br /> </p><div class="field field-type-text field-field-full"> <div class="field-label">Contenu complet:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> <p><strong>This <em>Viewpoint </em>was prepared by Youri Chassin, Economist and Research Director at the Montreal Economic Institute, with the collaboration of Vincent Geloso, Associate Researcher at the MEI. <em>The MEI&rsquo;s Education Series aims to explore the extent to which greater institutional autonomy and freedom of choice for students and parents lead to improvements in the quality of educational services.</em></strong><br /> <br /> Since 1990, the participation rate in school board elections has fallen dramatically. Despite a warning from then-Education Minister Yves Bolduc that the participation rate would determine the future of school boards,(1) only 5.54% of Quebecers voted during the 2014 elections (<a href="/files/image/figure1lepoint1316_en.jpg" target="_blank">see Figure 1</a>). The participation rate was higher in English school boards (16.88%) than in French ones, where the 5% threshold was not even reached (4.87%). In addition, over 40% of &ldquo;elected&rdquo; school board representatives are appointed unopposed and without an election.(2) Such participation levels show a lack of legitimacy for an institution that was designed to promote proximity between schools and their communities.<br /> <br /> These most recent election results represented a golden opportunity to do away with this superfluous institution in order to allow the emergence of more autonomous schools. In December 2015, the Quebec government introduced a bill that went in this direction.(3) However, the new Education Minister, S&eacute;bastien Proulx, decided to drop the structural modifications and focus instead on academic success.(4) Yet abolishing school boards and entrusting schools with more autonomy would in fact promote the success of students.<br /> <br /> <strong>Are School Boards Necessary?</strong><br /> <br /> School boards take care of many aspects of managing both teaching and non-teaching school staff (hiring, firing, evaluation, promotion, etc.), ensure the maintenance of facilities, provide pedagogical support to staff, and organize school transportation operations. However, these activities could all be undertaken by autonomous schools themselves. In fact, there are cases in Quebec of schools doing without the support provided by school boards: the 342 schools within the private school network.(5) These schools each individually manage their own staff, pedagogical services, and facilities. In many of them, boards of administrators composed of staff members and members of the community supervise the school principals and their teams.(6)<br /> <br /> The experience of private schools suggests that school boards are superfluous. Defenders of school boards often retort that there are economies of scale in numerous expenditures related to management or to bulk expenses for necessary goods. Although these might exist, the evidence for economies of scale in education is very thin.(7) To be realized, economies of scale generally tend to require a one-size-fits-all approach to the production of services. Since many schools have unique clienteles, or specific orientations, they have unique needs that require flexibility in terms of which services are rendered and how, including decisions about hiring teachers and evaluating them.(8)<br /> <br /> Economies of scale are therefore not a strong argument for school boards, because they are not automatic. Moreover, the realization of the relevant economies of scale does not require school boards. When it is more efficient for them to do so, independent schools can associate in order to make bulk acquisitions or hire specialized human resources without the need for a school board. Private schools do so already on a voluntary basis.<br /> <br /> <strong>Are School Boards Beneficial?</strong><br /> <br /> In the absence of school boards, schools would be free to use the teaching materials they consider most appropriate, and to manage the resources available to them in the manner best suited to meeting their pupils&rsquo; particular needs. Ideally, they would also face the possibility of parents transferring their children, and the corresponding public funding, to another school.(9) This combination of autonomy and accountability yields the best results.<br /> <br /> There is an extensive literature documenting the benefits of such an approach in terms of student performance and continuation on to post-secondary education.(10) There are also important benefits in terms of soft skills that are harder to measure. Soft skills are social attributes learned in order to interact efficiently with other individuals. They are highly correlated with later life outcomes like a lower risk of unemployment and a higher income.(11)<br /> <br /> An approach based on autonomy and accountability thus leads to long-run benefits that have an impact on other socio-economic outcomes.(12) In addition, when such an approach is pursued, it elicits greater involvement on the part of parents and local communities.(13) School boards may well prevent the full materialization of these benefits.<br /> <br /> It is important to realize that school autonomy is an important step toward the goal of greater academic success. The results of the 2014 elections confirmed that school boards lack legitimacy, which should have provided a sufficient impetus for reform. Unfortunately, the government has missed this opportunity to improve school autonomy and accountability. There are, however, still two years before the next school elections.<br /> <br /> <strong>References</strong><br /> <br /> 1. Pierre Saint-Arnaud, &ldquo;Yves Bolduc lie l&rsquo;avenir des commissions scolaires aux r&eacute;sultats des &eacute;lections,&rdquo; <em>Le Soleil</em>, October 3, 2014.<br /> 2. Quebec Department of Education, Preliminary Results for the 2014 School Board Elections.<br /> 3. Quebec National Assembly, <em>Bill 86: An Act to modify the organization and governance of school boards to give schools a greater say in decision-making and ensure parents&rsquo; presence within each school board&rsquo;s decision-making body</em>, December 2015.<br /> 4. ICI Radio-Canada, &ldquo;Proulx maintiendra les &eacute;lections scolaires,&rdquo; May 13, 2016.<br /> 5. Quebec Department of Education, Higher Education, and Research, <em>Statistiques de l&rsquo;&eacute;ducation : &Eacute;ducation pr&eacute;scolaire, enseignement primaire et secondaire&mdash;&Eacute;dition 2015</em>, Government of Quebec, forthcoming, data obtained from the Department.<br /> 6. Robert Gagn&eacute;, &ldquo;Are School Boards and the School Tax Still Justified?&rdquo; Economic Note, MEI, February 2007.<br /> 7. Mike Smet and Walter Nonneman, &ldquo;Economies of Scale and Scope in Flemish Secondary Schools,&rdquo; <em>Applied Economics</em>, Vol. 30, No. 9, September 1998, pp. 1251-1258; Edwin West and Stephen Ferris, &ldquo;Economies of Scale, School Violence and the Optimal Size of Schools,&rdquo; <em>Applied Economics</em>, Vol. 36, No. 15, September 2004, pp. 1677-1684; Herbert Walberg and William Fowler, &ldquo;Expenditure and Size Efficiencies of Public School Districts,&rdquo; <em>Educational Researcher</em>, Vol. 16, No. 7, October 1987, pp. 5-13.<br /> 8. Youri Chassin, &ldquo;Enhance the Standing of the Teaching Profession by Firing Incompetent Teachers,&rdquo; Economic Note, MEI, January 2016.<br /> 9. Although it is sometimes possible, choosing a school other than the one assigned is very difficult under the current public system.<br /> 10. Mathieu B&eacute;dard, &ldquo;Pedagogical Autonomy and Accountability: A Recipe for Improving Academic Results,&rdquo; Economic Note, MEI, August 2015.<br /> 11. Mathilde Almlund <em>et al.</em>, <em>Personality Psychology and Economics</em>, Working Paper 16822, National Bureau of Economic Research, February 2011; James Heckman and Tim Kautz, &ldquo;Hard Evidence on Soft Skills,&rdquo; <em>Labour Economics</em>, Vol. 19, No. 4, August 2012, pp. 451-464; Francis Green <em>et al</em>., &ldquo;The Changing Economic Advantage from Private Schools,&rdquo; <em>Economica</em>, Vol. 79, No. 316, October 2012, pp. 658-679.<br /> 12. Victor Lavy, <em>Long-Run Effects of Free School Choice: College Attainment, Employment, Earnings, and Social Outcomes at Adulthood</em>, Working Paper No. 20843, National Bureau of Economic Research, January 2015.<br /> 13. Mark Schneider <em>et al</em>., &ldquo;Institutional Arrangements and the Creation of Social Capital: The Effects of Public School Choice,&rdquo; <em>American Political Science Review</em>, Vol. 91, No. 1, March 1997, pp. 82-93.​</p> </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-snpicture"> <div class="field-label">RS Image:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> /files/image/large-lepoint1316_en.jpg </div> </div> </div> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-sn"> <div class="field-label">RS:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> The most recent school board election results represented a golden opportunity to do away with this superfluous institution in order to allow the emergence of more autonomous schools. In December 2015, the Quebec government introduced a bill that went in this direction. However, the new Education Minister, Sébastien Proulx, decided to drop the structural modifications and focus instead on academic success. Yet abolishing school boards and entrusting schools with more autonomy would in fact promote the success of students. </div> </div> </div> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/63042" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:00:00 +0000 iedm 63042 at http://www.iedm.org Abolition des commissions scolaires : l’occasion ratée du gouvernement http://www.iedm.org/fr/63041-abolition-des-commissions-scolaires-l-occasion-ratee-du-gouvernement <p><strong>Montr&eacute;al, le jeudi 25 ao&ucirc;t 2016 &ndash;</strong>&nbsp;Alors que la rentr&eacute;e scolaire s&rsquo;amorce partout au Qu&eacute;bec, les &eacute;l&egrave;ves et les &eacute;coles doivent toujours composer avec les commissions scolaires, une structure bureaucratique qui les emp&ecirc;che d&rsquo;atteindre leur plein potentiel, montre un&nbsp;<em>Point&nbsp;</em>publi&eacute; aujourd&rsquo;hui par l&rsquo;IEDM.</p> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-sn"> <div class="field-label">RS:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> Alors que la rentrée scolaire s’amorce partout au Québec, les élèves et les écoles doivent toujours composer avec les commissions scolaires, une structure bureaucratique qui les empêche d’atteindre leur plein potentiel, montre un Point publié aujourd’hui par l’IEDM. </div> </div> </div> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/63041-abolition-des-commissions-scolaires-l-occasion-ratee-du-gouvernement" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:00:00 +0000 iedm 63041 at http://www.iedm.org Abolishing school boards: The government’s missed opportunity http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/63040 <p><strong>Montreal, August 25, 2016 &ndash;</strong>&nbsp;With classes starting up again across Quebec, students and schools continue to have to deal with school boards, a bureaucratic structure that prevents them from reaching their full potential, shows a&nbsp;<em>Viewpoint&nbsp;</em>published today by the MEI.</p> <div class="field field-type-text field-field-sn"> <div class="field-label">RS:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> With classes starting up again across Quebec, students and schools continue to have to deal with school boards, a bureaucratic structure that prevents them from reaching their full potential, shows a Viewpoint published today by the MEI. </div> </div> </div> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/63040" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:00:00 +0000 iedm 63040 at http://www.iedm.org Les hôtels veulent le beurre et l’argent du beurre http://www.iedm.org/fr/63029-les-hotels-veulent-le-beurre-et-l-argent-du-beurre <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Les h&ocirc;teliers qu&eacute;b&eacute;cois et les plateformes de r&eacute;servation en ligne.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/63029-les-hotels-veulent-le-beurre-et-l-argent-du-beurre" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Tue, 23 Aug 2016 18:25:22 +0000 iedm 63029 at http://www.iedm.org Les hôtels veulent le beurre et l’argent du beurre http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/63028 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Quebec Hotel owners and online booking platforms.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/63028" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Tue, 23 Aug 2016 18:24:33 +0000 iedm 63028 at http://www.iedm.org On ne doit pas rendre illégal le travail des gens à faible productivité http://www.iedm.org/fr/63026-on-ne-doit-pas-rendre-illegal-le-travail-des-gens-a-faible-productivite <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/michel-kellygagnon, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Le d&eacute;bat sur le salaire minimum &agrave; 15 $ l&#39;heure.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/63026-on-ne-doit-pas-rendre-illegal-le-travail-des-gens-a-faible-productivite" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Mon, 22 Aug 2016 20:29:06 +0000 iedm 63026 at http://www.iedm.org On ne doit pas rendre illégal le travail des gens à faible productivité http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/63025 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/michel-kellygagnon, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>The 15 $ an hour minimum wage debate.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/63025" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Mon, 22 Aug 2016 20:29:06 +0000 iedm 63025 at http://www.iedm.org Que reste-t-il du livre de Thomas Piketty? http://www.iedm.org/fr/63019-que-reste-t-il-du-livre-de-thomas-piketty <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/mathieu-bedard, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Le livre Le capital au XXIe si&egrave;cle, de Thomas Piketty, &agrave; nouveau discr&eacute;dit&eacute;.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/63019-que-reste-t-il-du-livre-de-thomas-piketty" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Sun, 21 Aug 2016 20:39:55 +0000 iedm 63019 at http://www.iedm.org Que reste-t-il du livre de Thomas Piketty? http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/63018 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/mathieu-bedard, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>The book <em>Capital</em>, by Thomas Piketty, is once again discredited.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/63018" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Sun, 21 Aug 2016 20:39:55 +0000 iedm 63018 at http://www.iedm.org Investissement Québec : un bras financier un peu trop long http://www.iedm.org/fr/63013-investissement-quebec-un-bras-financier-un-peu-trop-long <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>L&rsquo;ing&eacute;rence politique ne devrait pas &ecirc;tre la motivation derri&egrave;re des projets de d&eacute;veloppement &eacute;conomique.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/63013-investissement-quebec-un-bras-financier-un-peu-trop-long" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 19 Aug 2016 21:22:43 +0000 iedm 63013 at http://www.iedm.org Investissement Québec : un bras financier un peu trop long http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/63012 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Political interference should not be the motivation behind economic development projects.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/63012" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 19 Aug 2016 21:22:43 +0000 iedm 63012 at http://www.iedm.org Le Québec inc. excelle au «Hunger Games» des affaires http://www.iedm.org/fr/63010-le-quebec-inc-excelle-aux-hunger-games-des-affaires <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/jasmin-guenette, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Les nombreuses entreprises qu&eacute;b&eacute;coises qui ach&egrave;tent des concurrents &eacute;trangers font rarement parler d&#39;elles.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/63010-le-quebec-inc-excelle-aux-hunger-games-des-affaires" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 19 Aug 2016 20:58:02 +0000 iedm 63010 at http://www.iedm.org Le Québec inc. excelle au «Hunger Games» des affaires http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/63009 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/jasmin-guenette, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>The many Quebec companies buying foreign competitors are rarely making the news.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/63009" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Fri, 19 Aug 2016 20:58:02 +0000 iedm 63009 at http://www.iedm.org The Ridiculous Ways Quebec Discourages Airbnb Users Cross The Line http://www.iedm.org/fr/63004-the-ridiculous-ways-quebec-discourages-airbnb-users-cross-the-line <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.huffingtonpost.ca/jasmin-guenette, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Les moyens d&eacute;ploy&eacute;s pour combattre le ph&eacute;nom&egrave;ne Airbnb.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/63004-the-ridiculous-ways-quebec-discourages-airbnb-users-cross-the-line" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Thu, 18 Aug 2016 22:04:46 +0000 iedm 63004 at http://www.iedm.org The Ridiculous Ways Quebec Discourages Airbnb Users Cross The Line http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/63003 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.huffingtonpost.ca/jasmin-guenette, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>The means deployed to combat the Airbnb phenomenon.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/63003" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Thu, 18 Aug 2016 22:04:00 +0000 iedm 63003 at http://www.iedm.org Airbnb : attention on vous traque ! http://www.iedm.org/fr/62994-airbnb-attention-on-vous-traque <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Les moyens d&eacute;ploy&eacute;s pour combattre le ph&eacute;nom&egrave;ne Airbnb.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/62994-airbnb-attention-on-vous-traque" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Wed, 17 Aug 2016 16:43:53 +0000 iedm 62994 at http://www.iedm.org Airbnb : attention on vous traque ! http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62993 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.journaldemontreal.com/blogues, p. Web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>The means deployed to combat the Airbnb phenomenon.</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62993" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Wed, 17 Aug 2016 16:41:47 +0000 iedm 62993 at http://www.iedm.org La compétence ou le nombre d'années d'expérience? http://www.iedm.org/fr/62991-la-competence-ou-le-nombre-d-annees-d-experience <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/pascale-dery, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>L&#39;anciennet&eacute;, un principe in&eacute;branlable aux yeux des syndicats.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/62991-la-competence-ou-le-nombre-d-annees-d-experience" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Wed, 17 Aug 2016 14:15:26 +0000 iedm 62991 at http://www.iedm.org La compétence ou le nombre d'années d'expérience? http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62990 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.quebec.huffingtonpost.ca/pascale-dery, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Seniority, an important principle in the eyes of the unions..</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62990" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Wed, 17 Aug 2016 14:14:14 +0000 iedm 62990 at http://www.iedm.org Canada Post's Unsustainable Monopoly Must Embrace Competition http://www.iedm.org/fr/62974-canada-post-s-unsustainable-monopoly-must-embrace-competition <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.huffingtonpost.ca/jasmin-guenette, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Postes Canada: un monopole public inefficace.</p><p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/62974-canada-post-s-unsustainable-monopoly-must-embrace-competition" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Tue, 16 Aug 2016 21:15:46 +0000 iedm 62974 at http://www.iedm.org Canada Post's Unsustainable Monopoly Must Embrace Competition http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62973 <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.huffingtonpost.ca/jasmin-guenette, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Canada Post:&nbsp;an inefficient public monopoly.&nbsp;</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/node/62973" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Tue, 16 Aug 2016 21:05:26 +0000 iedm 62973 at http://www.iedm.org Canada Should Not Follow Europe's Example In Taxing Online Purchases http://www.iedm.org/fr/62964-canada-should-not-follow-europe-s-example-in-taxing-online-purchases <div class="field field-type-text field-field-source"> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> www.huffingtonpost.ca/mathieu-bedard, p. web </div> </div> </div> <fieldset class="fieldgroup group-themes"><div class="field field-type-number-integer field-field-debt"> <div class="field-label">Debt Checkmark:&nbsp;</div> <div class="field-items"> <div class="field-item odd"> 0 </div> </div> </div> </fieldset> <p>Faut-il taxer les ventes en ligne sur des sites &eacute;trangers?</p> <p><a href="http://www.iedm.org/fr/62964-canada-should-not-follow-europe-s-example-in-taxing-online-purchases" target="_blank">en lire plus</a></p> Tue, 16 Aug 2016 20:35:01 +0000 iedm 62964 at http://www.iedm.org